Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica


Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,140,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-13999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,280,000-3,680,000 pairs, which equates to 2,560,000-7,350,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,600,000-13,400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1998 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Central African Republic V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Algeria Belezma
Armenia Meghri
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Greece Acheron delta and gorge
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Dadias-Dereiou-Aisimis forest
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lake Distos
Greece Mavrovouni mountain, Larissa
Greece Mount Olympos, Lesvos
Greece Mount Taigetos
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece South-west peninsula-petrified forest, Lesvos
Greece Southern Mani, Mount Sanghias and Cape Tenaro
Greece Zakynthos island
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Iraq Bakhma and Bradost Mountain
Iraq Barzan Area and Gali Balnda
Iraq Benavi and Sararu
Iraq Chami Razan
Iraq Doli Smaquli and Ashab
Iraq Gara Mountain and Garagu
Iraq Hawraman Area
Iraq Mangesh
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Iraq Qara Dagh
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Italy Ausoni and Aurunci mountains
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Lepini mountains
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Jordan Dana
Jordan Dibbin Forest
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Libya Nefhusa
Libya Zallaf
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Morocco Barrage Mohamed V
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Jbel Zerhoun
Morocco Oued Matil: Ksob
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Parc National de Tazekka
Morocco Parc National de Toubkal
Morocco Parc National du Haut Atlas Oriental
Morocco Parc Naturel d'Ifrane
Morocco Parc Naturel de Talassemtane
Morocco Région Fouchal - Matarka
Morocco Tamri and Imsouane
Morocco Tarhazoute
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
North Macedonia Mariovo
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
Portugal Cabrela
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Malcata mountains
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Syria Mount Hermon
Tunisia Barrage El Houareb
Tunisia Bouhedma
Tunisia Chaâmbi
Tunisia Chott Djerid
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Îles Kerkennah
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Tunisia Jbel el Haouaria
Tunisia Jbil
Tunisia Metbassta
Tunisia Plaines de Kairouan
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreiaâ
Tunisia Sebkhet Ennoual
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi Mansour
Tunisia Sidi Toui
Tunisia Steppe de Gafsa
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Dilek Peninsula
Turkey Güllük Mountain
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Turkey Köprüçay Valley
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Oenanthe hispanica. Downloaded from on 21/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/07/2019.