LC
Black-eared Wheatear Oenanthe hispanica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,600,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 6,140,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4000000-13999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.1 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 1,280,000-3,680,000 pairs, which equates to 2,560,000-7,350,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms 55% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 4,600,000-13,400,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: In Europe, trends between 1998 and 2013 show that populations have undergone a moderate decline (EBCC 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant Yes
Andorra V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria V Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant
Cameroon V Extant
Central African Republic V Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes
Gambia V Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman V Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Karpas Peninsula
Cyprus Cape Greco
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Bulgaria Radinchevo
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Northern Sifnos
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Galaxidi
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Kalymnos, Telendos, Kalolimnos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mounts Orliakas and Tsourgiakas
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Kasos island and surrounding islets
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Lavreotiki peninsula and Patroklos islet
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Zakynthos island
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Greece Ios, Sikinos and Folegandros islands
Greece Western, eastern and southern Rhodes
Greece Mount Dikaios, lake Psalidi and Alyki lagoon, Kos
Greece Northeastern peninsula of Crete
Greece Gavdos and Gavdopoula islands, Crete
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Montagut and Montmell mountains
Spain Cardó, Tivissa and Llabería mountains
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain Quipar reservoir, Molino mountain range and Cagitán plains
Spain Moratalla mountain range
Spain Fausilla mountains
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains
Spain Ricote and Nevela mountain ranges
Spain Pila mountain range
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Sierra Nevada mountain range
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Tabernas desert
Spain Gádor mountain range
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Mountain ranges south of Jaén
Spain Jaén countryside
Spain Hoya de Baza
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Monegrillo-Pina steppe area-Pina
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Valdurrios-Serreta Negra and Los Rincones mountain ranges
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain River Jalón canyon
Spain Pela mountain range-Orellana reservoir-Zorita
Spain Peñagolosa
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Iruelas valley
Spain Enguera mountain range-La Canal de Navarrés
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
France Iles Marseillaises: Maire, Jarron, Jarre, Riou, Calseraigne, Congloue et Pomègues
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
Italy Tolfa hills
Italy Alburni mountains
Italy Mount Cervati
Italy Coast between Marina di Camerota and Policastro Bussentino
Italy Murge
Italy Ausoni and Aurunci mountains
Italy Tuscan Archipelago
Italy Argentario
Greece Islands and islets of northern Dodecanese
Serbia Pcinja
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Croatia Neretva Delta
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Algeria Belezma
Libya Nefhusa
Libya Zallaf
Morocco Jbel Moussa
Morocco Parc Naturel de Talassemtane
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Barrage Mohamed V
Morocco Canton Forestier de Sidi Bou Ghaba
Morocco Parc National de Tazekka
Morocco Jbel Zerhoun
Morocco Parc Naturel d'Ifrane
Morocco Région Fouchal - Matarka
Morocco Parc National du Haut Atlas Oriental
Morocco Oued Matil: Ksob
Morocco Parc National de Toubkal
Morocco Tamri and Imsouane
Morocco Tarhazoute
Morocco Parc National de Souss-Massa and Aglou
Morocco Dakhla area
Tunisia Ichkeul
Tunisia Jbel el Haouaria
Tunisia Plaines de Kairouan
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Metbassta
Tunisia Barrage El Houareb
Tunisia Chaâmbi
Tunisia Îles Kerkennah
Tunisia Bouhedma
Tunisia Steppe de Gafsa
Tunisia Sebkhet Ennoual
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Tunisia Sebkhet Sidi Mansour
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreiaâ
Tunisia Chott Djerid
Tunisia Côte de Zerkine et El Grine
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Tunisia Jbil
Tunisia Sidi Toui
Italy Argentario, Laguna di Orbetello Lagoon e Lago di Burano
Turkey Karaburun and İldir Strait Islands
Syria Mount Hermon
Jordan Dana
Jordan Dibbin Forest
Russia (European) Bazarduyzi and Shalbuzdag alpine mountains
Bulgaria Sakar
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Besaparski Hills
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Emine
Portugal Malcata mountains
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Cabrela
Armenia Meghri
France Montagne de la Clape
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Massif des Albères
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Basse Ardêche
Bulgaria Madzharovo
North Macedonia Taor Gorge
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica
North Macedonia Mariovo
Iran, Islamic Republic of Deh Bakhri area
Iraq Benavi and Sararu
Iraq Dure
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
North Macedonia Lake Tikvesh
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Krumovitza
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Byala Reka
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Lebanon Aammiq wetland
Turkey Kelkit Valley
Turkey Alaçatı
Turkey Dilek Peninsula
Turkey Datça and Bozburun Peninsula
Turkey Bey Mountains
Turkey Güllük Mountain
Turkey Köprüçay Valley
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Amanos Mountains
Italy Lake Bracciano and Tolfa hills
Italy Lepini mountains
Italy River Biferno
Italy Dolomiti di Pietrapertosa
Italy Agri Valley
Italy Calanchi della Basilicata
Italy Alto Ionio Cosentino
Turkey Tahtalı Mountains
North Macedonia River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka
Lebanon Ramlieh Valley
Lebanon Rim - Sannine Mountain
Lebanon Upper Mountains of Akkar-Donnieh
North Macedonia Gradsko-Rosoman-Negotino
Armenia Jermook
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Iraq Ahmed Awa
Iraq Bakhma and Bradost Mountain
Iraq Barzan Area and Gali Balnda
Iraq Chami Razan
Iraq Doli Smaquli and Ashab
Iraq Gara Mountain and Garagu
Iraq Hawraman Area
Iraq Peramagroon Mountain
Iraq Qara Dagh
Iraq Mangesh
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Turkey Kizildag Izmir
Turkey Mahal Hills
Turkey Bodrum Peninsula
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Serbia Presevo valley - Rujen

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Oenanthe hispanica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2021.