EN
Black-eared Miner Manorina melanotis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(ii) B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(ii)
2013 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i,ii)
2012 Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
2007 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 30,400 medium
Number of locations 4 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 medium estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: Although the Riverland Biosphere Reserve (formerly the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve) supported an estimated 3,760 individuals, this was thought to equate to an effective population size of only 390 (210-726) mature individuals owing to a skewed sex ratio and a complex social organisation (Clarke et al. 2005). This population represented  over 95% of the total effective population, hence, given the broad confidence intervals the population is probably best estimated to fall within the band 250-1,000 mature individuals. The surveys for the estimates by Clarke et al. (2005) were carried out following a series of good breeding seasons, and thereafter the population underwent a significant decline following a large fire and drought in the region. Favourable conditions since the drought broke has seen a population increase over the last eight years but not yet to the level of the early 2000 population estimate (R. Boulton in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: Historically, it declined dramatically owing to clearance and fragmentation of its preferred mallee habitat. As a result, hybridisation with the dominant M. flavigula, which invades remnant habitat patches, is now the greatest threat and continues to drive declines. The Millennium Drought may have affected the population, fires burned all the suitable habitat in the Bronzewing Fauna and Flora Reserve, and fires have reduced the suitable habitat available in the Bookmark Biosphere Reserve (R. Clarke and R. Boulton in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Riverland Mallee
Australia Wyperfeld, Big Desert and Ngarkat
Australia Murray-Sunset, Hattah and Annuello

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Hybridisation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Manorina melanotis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2021.