Black-crowned Night-heron Nycticorax nycticorax


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 810 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 248,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 233,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.570,000-3,730,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 60,000-86,100 pairs, which equates to 120,000-172,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include: c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs, >c.10,000 individuals on migration and >c.10,000 wintering individuals in China; c.100,000-1 million breeding pairs in Taiwan; c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Korea and c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is stable, although some populations may be increasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (294% increase over 40 years, equating to a 40.8% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. The European population is estimated to be decreasing (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Laos N Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia V Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) V Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Czechia Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds)
Montenegro Lake Sasko
Serbia Obedska bara
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bardaca
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Lake Boz-Koba
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Lake Ych-chala (Novogolovka-chala)
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Phasouri reedbeds
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Paul do Boquilobo
Portugal Paul do Taipal
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Belene Islands Complex
Bulgaria Mechka Fish-ponds
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Stânca lake - Costeşti
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Comana
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Lunca wood
Romania Socodor wood
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gârla Mare
Belgium Polderkomplex
Turkey Meriç Delta
Turkey İznik Lake
Turkey Manyas Lake (Kuş Lake)
Turkey Sarıyar Reservoir
Turkey Göksu Delta
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece River Axios
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Syrna island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Lakes Trichonis and Lysimachia
Hungary Kesznyéten
Hungary Flood plain of Tiszaalpár
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Kolon Lake
Hungary Kisköre reservoir
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Pacsmag Lakes of Regöly
Hungary Vértes
Hungary Ipoly Valley
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Hanság
Hungary Ecseg Pusztas of Dévaványa
Hungary Inner Somogy
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Varnavinsko-Kryukovskaya irrigation system
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Spain Bornos reservoir
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Medas islands
Spain River Ebro ox-bow lakes
Spain Las Cañas lake
Spain Valongo
Spain Mérida-Montijo reservoir
Spain Azután reservoir
Spain Castrejón reservoir
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain River Pisuerga at Dueñas
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Cortados del Jarama
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Belver de los Montes-Gallegos del Pan
Spain Mouth of the river Guadalhorce
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Spain Sariñena lake and La Estación pond
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Córdoba countryside
Spain Tablas de Daimiel marshes; 'Vicario' and 'Gasset' reservoirs and Malagón lakes
Spain Malpica island (River Tagus)
Jordan Northern Jordan Valley (North Ghor)
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Klivodyns'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Mikulinetskie fish-ponds
Ukraine Psel river valley near Komsomol's'k
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Vovk river valley
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Camargue
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Domaine d'Orx
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Brenne centrale
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Mars sur Allier
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Gorges du Gardon
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Gorges du Rieutord-Fage-Cagnasses
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Vallée de la Garonne : méandre de Grisolles
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Marais de L'Ile Vieille
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Etang des Landes
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etang de Capestang
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etang de Thau
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Basse vallée du Var
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Marais de la Souche
France Lac et marais du Bourget
Italy Lakes Montepulciano and Chiusi
Italy Fucecchio marsh
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Taro river
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Boscone island
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province
Italy Adda Sud Park heronries
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy Po Delta
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Ticino river
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Maiella, Pizzi and Frentani mountains
Italy Gran Sasso d'Italia
Italy Pools of Florence plain
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy River Sesia heronries
Italy Novara heronries
Italy River Po from Dora Baltea mouth to Scrivia mouth
Italy Marengo heronry
Italy Codigoro heronry
Italy Quinto heronry
Italy Scrivia stream
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Casaraccio pool, Stintino saltpans and Pilo pool
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Zasavica
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Parížske marshes
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia Poiplie
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Czechia Trebonsko (Trebon region)
Turkey Uluabat Lake
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany Lake Überlingen of Lake Constance
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Danube
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Botswana Okavango Delta
Cameroon Kalamaloué National Park
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Mali Lac Débo - Lac Oualado Débo
Mali Koumbé Niasso
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Tanzania Wembere steppe
South Africa Nyl River Floodplain
Ukraine Konka river mouth
Ukraine Cholhyns'kyj zakaznyk
Ukraine Berezans'kyj lyman and Solonets Tuzly pond
Ukraine Kagul lake
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Italy Gran Sasso and Laga mountains
Ukraine River Danube
Israel Northern lower Jordan valley
Israel Zevulun valley
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Hefer valley
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Haur Om am Nyaj
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Vietnam Tra Cu
Vietnam Chua Hang
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Russia (European) Kizlyar Bay
China (mainland) Erlinggou
Malaysia Matang coast
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Russia (European) Leninsk forest area
Jamaica Yallahs
Czechia Jaroslavické rybníky ponds
Czechia Ceskobudejovicke rybniky ponds
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Topchiite
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Pointe de Grave
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Etang de Biguglia
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etang de Lindre
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Iles d'Hyères
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Forêt de la Reine
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Marais de Brière
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
Bulgaria Yatata
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Canada Whitford and Rush Lakes
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Pakowki Lake
Canada Frank Lake (south)
Canada Delta Marsh
Canada Netley-Libau Marsh
Canada Oak Hammock Marsh WMA
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area
Canada Whitewater Lake
Canada Proven Lake WMA
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Marshy Point
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Pointe aux Rats Musques Heronry
Canada Bon Portage Island
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Eastern Lake St. Clair
Canada Pelee Island Natural Areas
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada Hamilton Harbour Waterbird Colonies
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Nottawasaga Island
Canada Chantry Island
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Île Blanche
Canada Îles Pèlerins
Canada Brandypot Islands
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Le Pilier de Bois
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Montmagny
Canada Île Deslauriers
Canada Île aux Hérons Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Marais de Saint-Timothée
Canada Marais de Saint-Étienne
Canada Canal de Beauharnois
Canada Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area
Canada Fife Lake
Canada Old Wives-Frederick Lakes
Canada Bigstick Lake Plain
Canada Eyebrow Lake
Canada Nicolle Flats
Canada Lake Lenore
Canada Basin and Middle Lakes
Canada Rice Lake
Canada La Grande Île
Iran, Islamic Republic of Ghara Gheshlaq No-Hunting Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Abbas-abad dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e Naz Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Bulgaria Konush Reservoir
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Pozharevo Island
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Vardim Island
Bulgaria Golia Island
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
St Vincent and the Grenadines Mustique Island
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Aruba (to Netherlands) Tierra del Sol Salina
Turkmenistan Garabogaz - Garshy
Antigua and Barbuda McKinnons Salt Pond
Antigua and Barbuda Valley Church Bay
Antigua and Barbuda Potworks Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Bethesda Dam
Antigua and Barbuda Offshore Islands
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Paraguay Parque Nacional Tinfunqué - Estero Patiño
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Lebanon Taanayel Pond
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
St Lucia Point Sables
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Poland Insko Site
Paraguay Río Negro - Pantanal
Poland Upper Huczwa River Catchment
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Uzbekistan Mirzaaral Tugay
Turkmenistan Mergen
Poland Brzeszcze ponds
Poland Lower Sola River Valley
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Hungary Szigetköz
Jamaica Black River Great Morass
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve
Trinidad and Tobago Caroni Swamp
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Serbia Becej fishpond
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Indonesia Rawa Tulang Bawang
Slovakia Kráľová
Slovakia Medzibodrožie
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Croatia Grudnjak and Nasice Carp Fishponds
Turkey South Shore of Lake Van
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Bassa Parmense
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Italy Iolanda di Savoia wetlands
Guyana Kwara / Aruka River
Guyana Maparri - Kanuku Mountains
Guyana Crane Pond- Rupununi River
Guyana North-west Coastline
Guyana North Rupununi - Karanambu Ranch
Turkey Keban Islands
Poland Upper Vistula River Valley
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Wernauer and Unterensinger gravel pits
Germany Ponds and forests near Maulbronn
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Côte d'Ivoire Dassioko Classified Forest
Romania Balta Vederoasa
Romania Blahniţa
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Calafat - Ciuperceni - Dunăre
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Dunăre - Ostroave
Romania Gruia - Gârla Mare
Romania Macedonia forest
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Jamaica Font Hill
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Bzura River Valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Kuznica Warezynska Reservoir
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Spodnja Sava
Spain Olivenza-La Albuera
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Serbia Sitnica
Serbia Usce Save u Dunav
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Subotica lakes and sandy terrain
Italy Punta Alberete, Canna Valley, San Vitale Pinewood, and Pialassa of Baiona
Croatia Drava Storage Lakes
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Oostelijke Vechtplassen
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
India Pichavaram mangroves
Colombia El Encanto de Guanapalo
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the Trois Marigots)
Albania Lake Shkodra (Lake Scadar)
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Colombia Laguna de la Cocha
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Amacayacu
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Chiribiquete
Colombia Bojonawi
Albania Patoku lagoon
Albania Lake Mikri Prespa
Ecuador Ciénaga de La Segua

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 750 m

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Nycticorax nycticorax. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/02/2023.