VU
Black Crowned Crane Balearica pavonina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A4bcd
2012 Vulnerable A4bcd
2010 Vulnerable A4b,c,d
2008 Near Threatened A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 6,510,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 28000-47000 medium estimated 2005
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.1 - - -

Population justification: The western sub-population (B. p. pavonina) was estimated to number c.15,000 individuals in 2004, and the eastern sub-population (B. p. ceciliae) is less well-known, though estimated at 28,000-55,000 individuals in the same year. This gives a total population estimate of 43,000-70,000 individuals, roughly equivalent to 28,000-47,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The western sub-population (B. p. pavonina) is estimated to have declined from 15,000-20,000 individuals in 1985 to 15,000 individuals in 2004 (Beilfuss et al. 2007). Although the eastern sub-population may have undergone a more substantial decline (50,000-70,000 individuals in 1985 to 28,000-55,000 individuals in 2004), the accuracy of initial and current counts are questionable hence a trend based on these data is not advisable (Beilfuss et al. 2007, T. Dodman in litt. 2009). Therefore, based on data from B. p. pavonina populations alone, the species is estimated to have declined between 0-25% from 1985-2004. Given the uncertainty around these estimates, we provisionally estimate a worst-case decline of 30-49% over 45 years (three generations), though the true figure may be higher depending on the status of B. p. ceciliae.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Benin V Extant Yes
Burkina Faso V Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic V Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire V Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Eritrea V Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana V Possibly Extinct Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Possibly Extinct Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone V Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Togo V Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cameroon Logone flood-plain
Cameroon Waza National Park
Sudan Lake Kundi
Sudan Lake Abiad
South Sudan Sudd (Bahr-el-Jebel system)
Chad Lake Fitri
Chad Zakouma National Park
Mauritania Gâat Mahmoûdé
Nigeria Chad Basin National Park: Chingurmi - Duguma Sector
South Sudan Lake Abiad (South Sudan)
Sudan Lake Abiad (Sudan)
Ethiopia Lake Awassa
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Mauritania Diawling National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Balearica pavonina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022.