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Black-browed Albatross Thalassarche melanophris
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Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Thalassarche melanophris (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as T. melanophrys.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A4bd
2013 Near Threatened A4bd
2013 Near Threatened A4bd
2012 Endangered A4bd
2010 Endangered A4b,d
2008 Endangered A4b,d
2005 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2003 Endangered
2002 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 177,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 24,100
Number of locations 10 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1150000 good estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 25-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 21.5 - - -

Population justification: The annual breeding population in the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) was estimated at 475,500-535,000 pairs in 2010 (Wolfaardt 2012). In Chile there were 55,000 pairs on Diego Ramirez in 2003, 58,000 pairs on Ildefonso in 2012 (Robertson et al. 2013), and 15,500 pairs on Diego de Almagro in 2002 (Lawton et al. 2003). If an assumption is made that the South Georgia (Georgias del Sur) population is declining at the same rate as the colony on Bird Island (c.4% pa) then the population there may have declined to c.56,000 pairs by 2012 (ACAP unpubl. data). There are an estimated c.5,800 pairs in other populations (Antipodes, Campbell, Heard and MacDonald, Crozet, Kerguelen, Macquarie, Snares; ACAP unpubl. data), giving a total of c.700,000 pairs (1,400,000 mature individuals), very roughly equating to 2,100,000 individuals.

Trend justification: In 2010, an archipelago-wide survey was conducted for the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). Both the aerial and ground-based surveys conducted in 2010 revealed an increase of at least 4% per annum between 2005 and 2010. This positive trend is supported by demographic data and an additional aerial photographic survey conducted later in the 2010 breeding season (Wolfaardt 2012). It was also concluded that the islands’ population is likely to have increased since the first archipelago-wide ground survey in 2000, and possibly even since the initial ground based surveys were conducted at Beauchêne and Steeple Jason islands in the 1980s. Population trends from Chile (15-20% of the global population) are largely unknown. On South Georgia (Georgias del Sur), which held c.13% of the global population, only a relatively crude assessment can be made of the overall population trend (using estimates from Poncet et al. 2006 and extrapolating annual declines of 4% since 2006 on Bird lsland), but these suggest a substantial decrease. Incorporating these new data, the global population appears no longer to be undergoing ongoing declines over three generations since 1980, since increases in the population at the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) outweigh declines elsewhere such as at South Georgia (Georgias del Sur). The extrapolated trend over a three generation period (65 years) commencing in 1980 is a 246% increase, however there remains a considerable degree of uncertainty over population trends for a significant part of the global population, and this figure is heavily influenced by the extrapolation over 65 years of data from a ten-year period. In addition, high levels of mortality of this species are reported from longline and trawl fisheries in the South Atlantic. For these reasons, declines approaching 30% over three generations are precautionarily suspected until further data are forthcoming.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Denmark V Extant
Ecuador U Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
French Polynesia U Extant
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Madagascar U Extant
Mozambique U Extant
Namibia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) U Extant
Peru N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) U Extant
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur
Argentina Islas Malvinas
Argentina Villa marítima El Cóndor
Australia Macquarie Island
Chile Guamblin Island
Chile Isla Diego de Almagro
Chile Isla Evout
Chile Isla Rapa Nui
Chile Islas Diego Ramírez y Rocas Norte
Chile Islas Ildefonso
Chile Islote Albatros - Seno Almirantazgo
Chile Islote Leonard
Chile Islotes Evangelistas
Chile Lago Budi
Chile Puaucho
Chile Quinchele Inland and surrouding sea
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Beauchêne Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bird Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hope Harbour, West Falkland
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Jason Islands Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Keppel Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Saunders Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) West Point Island Group
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
French Southern Territories Îles des Apôtres
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny
French Southern Territories Northern part of Péninsule Loranchet
French Southern Territories Southern coast of Péninsule Jeanne d'Arc
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) Heard and McDonald Islands
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 19 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 37 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 40 - Marine
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
Uruguay Atlantic Ocean and Rio de la Plata mouth

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Thalassarche melanophris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/10/2017.