EN
Black-breasted Puffleg Eriocnemis nigrivestis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2013 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2010 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 590 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 100 good
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100-150 poor inferred 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified directly. The species appears to be scarce even in suitable habitat (T. Santander in litt. 2019). At Yanacocha-Verdecocha, a maximum of four individuals have been observed together during each transect count (T. Santander in litt. 2019, H. M. Schaefer in litt. 2020). The population in this area has preliminarily been estimated at up to 20 individuals (H. M. Schaefer in litt. 2020). Including further individuals in inaccessible, steep terrain and along the western slopes, the subpopulation at Pichincha volcano may number up to 80 individuals (H. M. Schaefer in litt. 2020), which roughly equates to 50 mature individuals. Similarly, for the subpopulation in the less studied Cordillera de Toisán up to four individuals have been observed, with an estimated density of 2-4 individuals/ha (Montenegro 2017). A recent survey however found the subpopulation to be likely larger than the subpopulation on the Pichincha volcano (L. Calapi, W. Arteaga and K. Varela per S. Bos in litt. 2020, T. Santander in litt. 2020, Ulloa 2020). The global population is thus tentatively placed in the band 100-150 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline based on habitat loss within its range, the rate of which is considerably lower than 10% over ten years (Global Forest Watch 2020; see also Santander et al. 2004, Cárdenas 2007, O. Jahn in litt. 2007). Considering the threat posed by additional habitat degradation, the rate of population decline may be higher than the rate of forest loss, and is here tentatively placed in the band 10-19% over ten years.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Mindo and western foothills of Volcan Pichincha
Ecuador Volcán Atacazo
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1700 - 3500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Eriocnemis nigrivestis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2022.