EN
Black-billed Amazon Amazona agilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3cde+4acde A3cde+4acde; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C1+2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A3cde+4acde
2016 Vulnerable A3c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2013 Vulnerable A3c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable A3c;B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2010 Vulnerable A3c; B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,100 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,156
Number of locations 6-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 poor estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.6 - - -

Population justification: Preliminary population estimates best place the global population in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals (S. Koenig in litt. 2008). This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. Further studies are required to obtain an accurate figure.

Trend justification: The species is undergoing a rapid decline at an accelerating rate, which is projected to continue over the next decades (Koenig 2008). This decline is caused by moderate rates of tree cover loss (Koenig 2008, Global Forest Watch 2020), deterioration of habitat quality due to a higher frequency of droughts, increased risk of hybridisation with Puerto Rican Amazon Amazona vittata, an increase in invasive nest predators, and hunting for the local pet trade (L. Gibson in litt. 2020, Cawley et al. 2020, Gibson 2020). The rate of decline is projected at 50-79% over three generations (31.8 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Jamaica N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Jamaica Cockpit Country
Jamaica John Crow Mountains
Jamaica Mount Diablo
Jamaica Dry Harbour Mountain
Jamaica Fyffe and Rankine
Jamaica Hyde Hall Mountain
Jamaica Duffus Mountain
Jamaica Point Hill
Jamaica Jericho
Jamaica Litchfield Mountain - Matheson's Run
Jamaica Catadupa
Jamaica Blue and John Crow Mountains

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 100 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Amazona vittata Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Hybridisation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Chilabothrus subflavus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Amazona agilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/05/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/05/2021.