Black-bellied Sandgrouse Pterocles orientalis


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2017 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,400,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 14,700,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 130000-259999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 10,400-19,100 pairs, which equates to 20,800-38,200 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms c.15% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 138,000-255,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction and hunting pressure. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in 16.8 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). The global rate of decline is difficult to determine, but is not currently thought to be moderately rapid.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya N Extant
Malta V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Nepal V Extant
Pakistan N Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates U Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Armenia Sardarapat
Portugal Castro Verde plains
Portugal Évora plains
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos
Portugal Reguengos de Monsaraz
Portugal River Guadiana
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Spain Alhamilla mountain range-Campo de Níjar plain
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain Baja Alcarria
Spain Ballobar-Candasnos
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Belchite-Mediana
Spain Bienvenida-Usagre-Ribera del Fresno
Spain Blancas-Torralba de los Sisones
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Campo de Montiel
Spain Campo Visiedo
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Guadalentín saltmarshes
Spain Hoya de Guadix
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain
Spain La Serena
Spain Lajares sandy plain-Cotillo-Ezquinzo
Spain Layna high moors
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Spain Llanos de Plasencia
Spain Llanura y Muelas de Valdejalón - Muel
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain Pétrola-Almansa-Yecla
Spain Plain between Cáceres and Trujillo-Aldea del Cano
Spain Plains of Mareta-Hoya de la Yegua
Spain Puebla de Don Fadrique-Las Cañadas
Spain Sasos del Cinca Medio
Spain Tembleque-La Guardia plains
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Tordesillas-Mota del Marqués
Spain Trujillo-Torrecillas de la Tiesa
Spain Villafáfila
Turkey Hodulbaba Mountain
Turkey Obruk Plateau

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pterocles orientalis. Downloaded from on 23/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 23/08/2019.