Black Baza Aviceda leuphotes


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 6,880,000 km2
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 9,530,000 km2
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 10000-50000 mature individuals poor suspected 2021
Population trend decreasing - suspected 2016-2030
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 5-15% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Generation length 4.49 years - - -

Population justification: There is very little data on population size for this species. Ferguson-Lees and Christie (2001) estimated the global population to number > c.10,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), while the population in China has been estimated at c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009). The Black Baza was the most common raptor counted during migrating bird surveys at Chumphon, Thailand in autumn 2003 (68,219 individuals) and spring 2007 and 2008 (22,000 individuals on average) (DeCandido et al. 2008). 68,219 individuals equates to approximately 45,700 mature individuals. In the absence of data from other parts of its range, it is placed in the band 10,000-50,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction through deforestation (Clark and Kirwan 2020). During 2001-2020, 15% of forest cover was lost across this species’s range (Global Forest Watch 2021), equating to a loss of 10.6% over three generations (13.47 years [Bird et al. 2020]). During 2016-2020, 5.3% of forest cover was lost across this species’s range (Global Forest Watch 2021), equivalent to 16.7% when projected forward over three generations. This species utilises orchards, gardens and agricultural areas in winter, but nests predominantly in forests (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). There are currently no other known significant threats to the species, therefore it is suspected to be declining at a similar rate to forest loss.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Bangladesh extant native yes
Bhutan extant native yes
Cambodia extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes yes
India extant native yes yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Laos extant native yes
Malaysia extant native yes
Myanmar extant native yes yes yes
Nepal extant native yes
Singapore extant native yes
Sri Lanka extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes yes
Vietnam extant native yes yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Aviceda leuphotes. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.