Black-and-white Tanager Conothraupis speculigera


Justification of Red List Category
This species is uncommon or rare throughout its range, and its moderately small population is likely to be declining owing to habitat loss and degradation. It is therefore considered Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon and patchily distributed' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 10.6-10.7% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (11 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Conothraupis speculigera breeds on the west slope of the Andes up to 1,800 m in west Ecuador (south-west Pichincha, Azuay and Loja), and north-west Peru (Piura south to La Libertad), migrating to Amazonia where it is found very locally on the east slope in east Peru (Amazonas, Cajamarca, San Martín, Loreto, Ucayali and Madre de Dios) (Isler and Isler 1987, Ridgely and Tudor 1989). It is rare to uncommon throughout its range.


This species breeds during February-May in deciduous woodland, gallery forest and riparian thickets up to 1,950 m west of the Andes (Parker et al. 1996, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001, Schulenberg et al. 2007), with its occurrence in north-west Peru dependent on whether sufficient rain has fallen for vegetation to develop (O'Neill 1966). After breeding it migrates to Amazonia where it is found in forest-edge, second growth and river-edge forest from June to September (Schulenberg et al. 2007).


It is threatened by deforestation and understorey degradation (Stattersfield et al. 1998), which may be further isolating populations within its already disjunct range.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct repeated surveys to determine seasonal movements, with a particular focus on identifying whether breeding populations occur on the east slope of the Andes. Conduct studies to identify precise habitat requirements and responses to habitat degradation or fragmentation. Protect areas of suitable habitat (in addition to the private reserves the species probably occurs in).


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Gilroy, J., O'Brien, A. & Sharpe, C J

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Conothraupis speculigera. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/07/2022.