Black-and-orange Flycatcher Ficedula nigrorufa


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). Despite the fact that the population trend appears to be decreasing, the decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Therefore, the species is now listed as Least Concern.

Population justification
The population size is unknown, but the species is described as common or locally common (del Hoyo et al. 2006).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to ongoing habitat destruction.

Distribution and population

Ficedula nigrorufa is an endemic resident in the Western Ghats of southern India, where it is locally common.


It inhabits shola forests with dense undergrowth (bamboo, Strobilanthes and rattan) and plenty of leaf-litter, cardamom and coffee plantations, and moist thickets in ravines from 700 m to the highest summits. It forages low down and on the ground, hopping in damp, dense undergrowth. Breeding is between March and July.


While its range is small, its tolerance for modified habitats suggests that it is not immediately threatened. However, an increasing human population has led to increased illegal encroachment into Western Ghat forests, livestock grazing and the harvesting of fuelwood, notably for use in tea factories (J. Taylor in litt. 2011), and huge quantities of forest products such as bamboo and canes. Furthermore, hydroelectric power development and road-building are causing reductions in forest cover in some areas. These factors require monitoring as, left uncontrolled, they will threaten the area's endemic avifauna.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Research threats to the species and monitor any emerging threats identified. Produce density estimates to inform a global population estimate as a baseline. Protect areas of suitable habitat.


Text account compilers
Khwaja, N., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Westrip, J.

Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ficedula nigrorufa. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/07/2022.