LC
Black-and-gold Cotinga Lipaugus ater



Justification

Justification of Red List Category

Although this species may have a restricted range, it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km² combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). Despite the fact that the population trend may be decreasing, any decline is not believed to be sufficiently rapid to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern




Population justification
The species has been described as ‘numerous in upper parts of Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos National Parks, and reasonably common elsewhere in suitable habitat’ (Snow and Sharpe 2018). Based on an analysis of remotely-sensed land cover data within the species's extent of occurrence and modelled population density, the population size has been estimated at 44,591 mature individuals (Santini et al. 2019). The species's population size is therefore placed in the band 20,000-49,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification
An analysis of forest loss within its range from 2000-2012 found that forest was lost at a rate equivalent to 3% across three generations (13.8 years; Tracewski et al. 2016). From this information, and assuming that forest loss is continuing, the species’s population size is suspected to be in decline.

Distribution and population

Lipaugus ater occurs in the eastern mountains of  Serras do Mar and da Mantiqueira in Rio de Janeiro, extreme east São Paulo and adjacent south Minas Gerais, south-east Brazil (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996). Despite this highly restricted range, habitat destruction of its montane Atlantic forest has been much less extensive than in adjacent lowland areas (Stattersfield et al. 1998). As a consequence, it is numerous in the upper reaches of Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos national parks, and locally fairly common in the canopy and middle levels of montane forest elsewhere within its range (Ridgely and Tudor 1994).

Ecology

It occurs in the canopy and middle levels of montane Atlantic forest at 1,100-2,100 m.

Threats

Destruction of its montane Atlantic forest has been much less extensive than in adjacent lowland areas (Stattersfield et al. 1998). The species  is occasionally hunted for food.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
It is numerous in Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos National Parks.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population in strongholds at Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos National Parks. Quantify rates of habitat loss in montane Atlantic Forest. Ensure effective protection of Itatiaia and Serra dos Órgãos National Parks.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Capper, D., Wheatley, H.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Lipaugus ater. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.