Bell's Vireo Vireo bellii


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., ?ekercio?lu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Brown, B. T. 1993. Bell's Vireo Vireo bellii. In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 35, pp. 1-20. The Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia and the American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Kosciuch, K.L. and B.K. Sandercock. 2008. Cowbird removals unexpectedly increase productivity of a brood parasite and the songbird host. Ecological Applications 18: 537-548.

Krueper, D., J. Bart and T. D. Rich. 2003. Response of vegetation and breeding birds to the removal of cattle on the San Pedro River, Arizona (USA). Conservation Biology 17(2): 607-615.

Kus, B., S. L. Hopp, R. R. Johnson, and B. T. Brown (2010). Bell's Vireo (Vireo bellii), version 2.0. In The Birds of North America (A. F. Poole, Editor). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY, USA.

Kus, B.E. 1999. Impacts of Brown-headed Cowbird parasitsm on productivity of the endangered Least Bell's Vireo. Studies in Avian Biology 18: 160-166.

Kus, B.E. and M. J. Whitfield. 2005. Parasitism, productivity, and population growth: response of Least Bell’s Vireos and Southwestern Willow Flycatchers to cowbird control. Ornithological Monographs 57: 16-27.

Leathers, J. 2015. EUWALLACEA SP. NR. FORNICATUS: POLYPHAGOUS SHOT HOLE BORER (PSHB). Available at: (Accessed: 03/02/2017).

Longcore, T.; Rich, C.; Mineau, P.; MacDonald, B.; Bert, D.G.; Sullivan, L.M.; Mutrie, E.; Gauthreaux Jr., S.A.; Avery, M.L.; Crawford, R.L.; Manville II, A.M.; Travis, E.R.; Drake, D. 2013. Avian mortality at communication towers in the United States and Canada: which species, how many, and where? Biol. Conserv. 158: 410-419.

Pardieck, K. L.; Ziolkowski Jr., D. J.; Lutmerding, M.; Hudson, M. A. R. 2018. North American Breeding Bird Survey Dataset 1966 - 2017, version 2017.0. U.S. Geological Survey, Patuxent Wildlife Research Center Available at:

Partners in Flight. 2019. Avian Conservation Assessment Database, version 2019. Available at:

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Vireo bellii. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/12/2023.