CR
Belem Curassow Crax pinima



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Crax fasciolata and C. pinna (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as Crax fasciolata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
D A3cd+4cd; D A2cd+3cd+4cd; D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered D
2016 Critically Endangered D
2015 Critically Endangered D
2014 Critically Endangered D
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass 2600 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 313,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 poor not applicable 2014
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.5 - - -

Population justification: Given how infrequently this species has been recorded in the wild, it is likely to be very rare. In 2014 it was considered unlikely that more than 20-30 individuals existed (A. Lees in litt. 2014). Although the species has since been recorded at Gurupi Biological Reserve, the total population is still assumed to be very small and is placed in the band 1-49 mature individuals.

Trend justification: An analysis of forest loss from 2000-2012 found that the rate of forest loss within the species's range was equivalent to 28% across three generations (Tracewski et al. 2016). Given that the species is also susceptible to fragmentation, edge-effects and hunting, it is likely that the rate of decline over the past three generations has been greater than this, and has been placed in the band 30-49%.

A model of forest loss in the Amazon basin since 2002 (Soares-Filho et al. 2006), combined with the species’s approximate maximum range and data on its ecology and life history (following the methods of Bird et al. 2011), suggests that the species will lose 78-88% of suitable habitat in the Amazonian portion of its range (as defined by the model, and which accounts for c. 68% of the total area of suitable habitat for this species) over 35 years (estimate of three generations). The pessimistic scenario for forest loss suggests that the species will lose at least 60% of its global extent of suitable habitat over this period. By also factoring in additional declines owing to the species’s susceptibility to fragmentation, edge-effects and hunting, the suspected rate of population decline could be 70% over 35 years. However, estimated recent rates of forest loss in the species's range have been equivalent to 28% across three generations (Tracewski et al. 2016). The projected future decline is therefore placed in the band 50-79%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Rio Capim
Brazil Gurupi

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Crax pinima. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2020.