NT
Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it is suspected to have undergone moderately rapid declines during the past three generations (41 years) owing to habitat loss and incidental poisoning and pollution, and is consequently believed to approach the threshold for classification as Vulnerable.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number in the tens of thousands.

Trend justification
Declines have taken place across much of this species's range owing to habitat loss and incidental poisoning/pollution; the overall rate of decline is difficult to quantify but is suspected to have been moderately rapid over the past three generations (41 years).

Distribution and population

Terathopius ecaudatus has an extensive range across much of sub-Saharan Africa (from southern Mauritania, Senegal, southern Mali and Guinea east to southern Sudan, northern South Sudan, Ethiopia and west Somalia and south to Namibia, Botswana and northern and north-eastern South Africa), and also occurs in south-west Arabia (south-west Saudi Arabia and Yemen where breeding populations are <5 pairs and c. 35 pairs respectively and the population is likely declining [P. Vercammen in litt. 2006]). Its global population is estimated to be 10,000-100,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). There have been significant population declines and/or range contractions suspected in many regions, including Botswana (S. Tyler in litt. 2009), Cameroon (where it is now rare outside protected areas [Buij and Croes 2014], Côte d'Ivoire (del Hoyo et al. 1994), Kenya (N. Baker in litt. 2005, Ogada 2009, although between 1976/19988 and 2003-2005 abundance in the Masai Mara has increased, though not significantly [Virani et al. 2011]), Namibia (del Hoyo et al. 1994), Nigeria (an estimated decline of at least 50 % in 30 years, now probably only found in Yankari Gam Reserve where it used to be common but only 2 birds were seen in April and June 2016) (P. Hall in litt. 2005, 2009, 2016, O. J. Daniel in litt. 2009), Somalia (A. Ajama in litt. 2009), South Africa (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, S. Thomsett in litt. 2005), Sudan (del Hoyo et al. 1994), parts of Zambia (P. Leonard in litt. 2005), Zimbabwe (del Hoyo et al. 1994), and possibly parts of Tanzania (J. Wolstencroft in litt. 2005), in some areas, however, the species is not declining and remains widespread and common (N. Baker in litt. 2005, N. Cordeiro in litt. 2005, F. Dowsett-Lemaire and R. Dowsett in litt. 2005).

Ecology

It inhabits open country, including grasslands, savanna and subdesert thornbush from sea level to 4,500 m but generally below 3,000 m (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It is generally considered resident but some adults as well as immatures are nomadic (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). It takes both live and dead food, mostly mammals and birds but also some reptiles, carrion, insects and occasionally birds' eggs and crabs, foraging over a huge range (55-200 km2) (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001). The nest is built in the canopy of a large tree, and breeding is chiefly September-May in West Africa, throughout the year in East Africa and December-August in southern Africa (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Threats

Putative reasons for declines vary, but include poisoned baits, pesticides, trapping for international trade, nest disturbance from spreading human settlements, and increased intensification and degradation of agricultural land (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, N. Baker in litt. 2005, S. Thomsett in litt. 2005). The major cause of the decline seems to be almost entirely poisoning by a few large-scale commercial farmers, but poisoning is also a problem in tribal small-stock farming communities.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
No large scale actions underway but possible that protected in Yemen as an endangered species (P. Vercammen  in litt. 2006). It is listed under Appendix II of CITES.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Implement education and awareness campaigns across its range to reduce the use of poisoned baits. Carry out regular population monitoring across its range.

Identification

55-70 cm. Mid-sized, oddly-proportioned eagle, with very long pointed wings, 'tailless' appearance and bushy head. Wings held in a deep 'V' and flight fast with distinctive side to side tilting action. Males generally black but with chestnut from mantle to tail, brownish-grey shoulders, white underwing linings and bare red face and legs. Females have more extensive white underwings and grey secondaries. Juveniles are all brown with blue-grey cere, face and legs and longer tail. Similar spp Jackal and Augur Buzzards share a combination of black, white and chestnut plumage but shape of Bateleur renders it unmistakeable.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Martin, R, Pilgrim, J., Symes, A. & Westrip, J.

Contributors
Ajama, A., Baker, N., Brewster, C., Brown, C., Cordeiro, N., Daniel, O., Dowsett, R., Dowsett-Lemaire, F., Hall, P., Kitaba, K., Leonard, P., Thomsett, S., Tyler, S., Wolstencroft, J. & Vercammen, P.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Terathopius ecaudatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/06/2019.