Bateleur Terathopius ecaudatus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2acde+3cde+4acde A2acde+3cde+4acde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered A2acde+3cde+4acde
2016 Near Threatened A2acde
2012 Near Threatened A2acde
2009 Near Threatened A2(a,c,d,e)
2008 Least Concern
2006 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency low
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 23,500,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals medium suspected 2001
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 1976-2022
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 50-79 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 50-79 - - -
Generation length (years) 15.3 - - -

Population justification: The population is suspected to number in the tens of thousands (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001).

Trend justification: There have been significant population declines across much of this species's range owing to habitat loss and incidental poisoning/pollution, including Botswana (S. Tyler in litt. 2009; Garbett et al., 2018), Cameroon (Buij and Croes 2014; Thiollay, 2001; R. Buij, unpublished data), Côte d'Ivoire (del Hoyo et al. 1994), Kenya (N. Baker in litt. 2005; Ogada 2009; Ogada et al., 2020 in prep), Namibia (del Hoyo et al. 1994), Nigeria (an estimated decline of at least 50 % in 30 years, now probably only found in Yankari Gam Reserve where it used to be common but only two birds were seen in April and June 2016) (P. Hall in litt. 2005, 2009, 2016, 2020; O. J. Daniel in litt. 2009), Somalia (A. Ajama in litt. 2009), South Africa (Ferguson-Lees and Christie 2001, S. Thomsett in litt. 2005), where the reporting rates between SABAP1 (1987-1992) and SAPAP2 (2007-2020) reduced by 59% (P. Shaw, A. Amar and D. Ogada in litt. 2020), and densities within the Kruger National Park have declined (C. Murn in litt. 2020), Sudan (del Hoyo et al. 1994), Zambia (P. Leonard in litt. 2005), and Zimbabwe (del Hoyo et al. 1994). The overall rate of decline is difficult to quantify but is believed to have been rapid over the past three generations (46 years), placed here in the 50-79% band.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola extant native yes
Benin extant native yes
Botswana extant native yes
Burkina Faso extant native yes
Burundi extant native yes
Cameroon extant native yes
Central African Republic extant native yes
Chad extant native yes
Congo extant native yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Egypt extant native yes
Eritrea extant native yes
Eswatini extant native yes
Ethiopia extant native yes
Gabon extant native yes
Gambia extant native yes
Ghana extant native yes
Guinea extant native yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native yes
Iraq extant vagrant yes
Israel extant vagrant yes
Kenya extant native yes
Lesotho extant vagrant yes
Liberia extant vagrant yes
Malawi extant native yes
Mali extant native yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Mozambique extant native yes
Namibia extant native yes
Niger extant native yes
Nigeria extant native yes
Rwanda extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes
Senegal extant native yes
Sierra Leone extant native yes
Somalia extant native yes
South Africa extant native yes
South Sudan extant native yes
Sudan extant native yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Togo extant native yes
Tunisia extant vagrant yes
Uganda extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes
Zambia extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Bura
Kenya Kirisia Forest
South Africa iSimangaliso Wetland Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Terathopius ecaudatus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/bateleur-terathopius-ecaudatus on 25/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 25/09/2023.