LC
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 20 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 251,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 271,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 290000000-487000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 29-48.7 million pairs, which equates to 58-97.4 million mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 290-487 million mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: 10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration in China; 10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, >10,000 individuals on migration and <50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; 10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; 10,000-1 million breeding pairs, >1,000 individuals on migration and 50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan, as well as 10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and 1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In North America, this species has undergone a small decline over the last 50 years (44% decline between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey [Sauer et al. 2017], or 38% decline between 1970 and 2014 based on Partners in Flight [A. Panjabi in litt. 2017]). Recent trends, however, show a more rapid, significant decline of 10.5% over the last three generations in North America (Sauer et al. 2017). According to EBCC (2018), the European population has undergone a moderate decline between 1980 and 2015. BirdLife International (2015) estimated the European population to be decreasing by less than 25% in three generations (11.7 years). Therefore overall, the global population is tentatively assessed as being in decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain
Romania Rarău Mountains - Giumalău
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Slovenia Kočevsko
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Slovenia River Mura
Slovenia Goričko
Slovenia Karst
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Mount Cholomontas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mount Parnitha
Greece East Lakonia mountains
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Thasos island and Xironisi islet
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Chalki island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Mounts Agia Dynati and Kokkini Rachi, Kefalonia
Greece Kythira island
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Lower Kalamas gorge
Greece Psili Ammos lagoon, Samos
Greece Mount Falakro
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Artemisio and Lyrkeio mountains
Greece Mount Erymanthos
Greece Mount Kochylas, Skyros
Greece Western Skyros and islets
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Agios Efstratios island
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos
Greece Mount Lepetymnos, Lesvos, and surrounding marine area
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Tilos island and surrounding islets
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Mount Kantili
Greece Symi island and surrounding islets
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Asvestades - Vrysika area
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Spercheios valley and delta and Maliakos gulf
Greece Serifos island
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Dystos
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Samothraki island
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Juortanansalo
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Hungary Borsodi-Mezőség
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Mountains of Barcelona
Spain Rivers Cinca and Alcanadre riverine forest
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
France Marais de Sacy
France Col de l'Escrinet
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Grigne
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Adda mouth
Italy Lessini and Pasubio mountains
Italy Piave river
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Valli di Argenta
Italy Vico lake
Italy Ponziane islands
Italy Colfiorito
Italy Sentina
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Serbia Cer mountain
Slovakia Slovenský karst
Slovakia Horna Orava
Slovakia Malé Karpaty
Slovakia Nízke Tatry
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Andorra Pirineo de Andorra
Austria Austrian part of Hanság
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Surroundings of Mattersburg
Austria Zoological Gardens of Lainz
Austria Lobau
Austria Steinfeld
Austria Thermenlinie
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Central Marchfeld
Austria Lösslandschaft and Wagram east of Krems
Austria Pielachtal
Austria Wachau
Austria Southern Waldviertel
Austria Allentsteig military training area
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Austria Lower Kamp valley
Austria Western Waldviertel
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Machland
Austria Freiwald
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Northern Kalkalpen
Austria Lower course of the Traun
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Unterlammer hill country
Austria South-east Styrian hill country
Austria Lower Mur valley
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Villacher Alpe-Dobratsch
Austria Lower valley of the Gail
Austria Nockberge National Park
Austria Kaisergebirge
Austria Tyrolian Lech valley
Austria Silvretta and Verwall
Austria Delta of the Rhine
Austria Parndorfer Platte and Heideboden
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Austria Heideboden
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Spreewald
Germany Lower Oder valley
Botswana Okavango Delta
Nigeria Ebok-Kabaken
Jamaica Yallahs
Russia (Central Asian) Ir valley
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Belasitza mountain
Bulgaria Western Balkan
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan
Bulgaria Sredna Gora
Bulgaria Rila
Bulgaria Pirin
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Ludogorie
Bulgaria Western Rhodopes
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Melnik Pyramids
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Osogovo Mountain
Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain
Bulgaria Trigrad-Mursalitsa
Bulgaria Mikre Meadows
Bulgaria Palakaria
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Studenets
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Nikopolsko Plateau
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau
Bulgaria Ruy Mountain
Bulgaria Zemen Gordge
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Puerto Rico (to USA) Vaqueria
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Pointe de Grave
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Bahamas Great Inagua
Canada Long Point Peninsula and Marshes
Jordan Qa' Khanna
Cambodia Boeung Prek Lapouv
South Africa Mount Moreland
Austria North-eastern Leithagebirge
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Western Weinviertel
Italy Lagorai mountains
Italy Adamello-Brenta
Austria Karwendel
Austria Inn valley between Stams and Haiming
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Lebanon Yammouneh Nature Reserve
Lebanon Yanta
St Lucia Point Sables
Lebanon Tannourine Nature Reserve
Lebanon Hima Ebel es-Saqi
Italy Stelvio National Park
Virgin Islands (to USA) Great Pond
Virgin Islands (to USA) Southgate and Green Cay
Anguilla (to UK) Cove Pond
Anguilla (to UK) Long Salt Pond
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Ticino river
Lebanon Fnaideq Forest
Italy Val d'Ossola
Italy Crava-Morozzo lakes
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Guyana South Central Rupununi
Guyana Crane Pond- Rupununi River
Luxembourg Valley of the Syre
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kenya Boni and Dodori National Reserves
Kazakhstan Ili River Delta
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Western and northern foothills of the Kalba Range
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Colombia El Encanto de Guanapalo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Passer domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Hirundo rustica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/07/2020.