LC
Barn Swallow Hirundo rustica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 20 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 251,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 271,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 290000000-487000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 29-48.7 million pairs, which equates to 58-97.4 million mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 290-487 million mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: 10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration in China; 10,000-100,000 breeding pairs, >10,000 individuals on migration and <50 wintering individuals in Taiwan; 10,000-1 million breeding pairs and >1,000 individuals on migration in Korea; 10,000-1 million breeding pairs, >1,000 individuals on migration and 50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan, as well as 10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and 1,000-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: In North America, this species has undergone a small decline over the last 50 years (44% decline between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey [Sauer et al. 2017], or 38% decline between 1970 and 2014 based on Partners in Flight [A. Panjabi in litt. 2017]). Recent trends, however, show a more rapid, significant decline of 10.5% over the last three generations in North America (Sauer et al. 2017). According to EBCC (2018), the European population has undergone a moderate decline between 1980 and 2015. BirdLife International (2015) estimated the European population to be decreasing by less than 25% in three generations (11.7 years). Therefore overall, the global population is tentatively assessed as being in decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra N Extant Yes
Angola N Extant
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
Chile N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) N Extant
Cocos (Keeling) Islands (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
El Salvador N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Jamaica N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant Yes
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Suriname N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Botswana Okavango Delta
Czechia Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region)
Nigeria Ebok-Kabaken
South Africa Mount Moreland
Spain Mountains of Barcelona

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Savanna Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Passer domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Hirundo rustica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2019.