VU
Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis
BirdLife is reviewing the status of this species for the 2017 Red List.
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Justification

Justification of Red List Category
The combination of increased rates of habitat loss and more intense trapping pressures within this species's range in Paraguay and Brazil mean that its population is likely to have been undergoing rapid declines. For these reasons the species qualifies as Vulnerable.

Population justification
Although locally fairly common, it is rare at many sites; its population probably closer to the upper limit of the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, which is rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals. This population estimate is provisional and requires confirmation.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected, consistent with rates of habitat loss and trapping for the cage-bird trade.

Distribution and population

Procnias nudicollis is known from a wide area of east Brazil (Alagoas south to Rio Grande do Sul and inland to south Mato Grosso), north-east Argentina (Misiones, with one record in Corrientes) and east Paraguay (west to Concepción) (Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Parker et al. 1996, Bertonatti 1997). The species is considered extinct from remnant forest patches of north-eastern Brazil north of the São Francisco river, where it was formerly known from the Murici area (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). It is locally relatively common in Brazil (F. Olmos in litt. 2003) and Paraguay (especially in Canindeyú, San Pedro, and Amambay) (A. Bodrati in litt. 2007), but rare in Argentina (Bodrati and Cockle 2006), in the canopy and borders of Atlantic forest up to 1,000 m. The species is believed to be migratory in south-east Brazil, although its migratory patterns are poorly-known and likely to be complex. Similarly, there are only August and September records in Misiones, Argentina, suggesting that it is only transient in this country (Lowen et al. 1996, Bodrati et al. 2010, A. Bodrati in litt. 2012). Only in north-eastern Paraguay is the species believed to be resident (Lowen et al. 1996), where it is locally common at a few isolated sites.

Ecology

Where migratory Procnias nudicollis probably follows a complex migration route that may be linked to fruit production, with males calling, and thus apparently acting territorially, en route (Canevari et al. 1991, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Lowen et al. 1996). The only records of multiple individuals from Argentina were in September, in forest with Euterpe edulis and Aspidosperma polyneuron, a habitat where the species is also found in Paraguay (Bodrati and Cockle 2006, A. Bodrati in litt. 2007).

Threats

The population has unquestionably declined owing to deforestation and heavy trapping pressure for the cage-bird trade, particularly in Brazil (Brooks et al. 1993, Tobias et al. 1993, M. Guimarães Diniz in litt. 2003, Ridgely and Tudor 1994, Kirwan and Green 2011). Trapping pressure may be particularly heavy in southern Bahia, São Paulo and Santa Catarina and the population size is therefore difficult to assess in these areas (F. Olmos in litt. 2003). Numerous individuals were seen in cages between Serra das Lontras and Una Biological Reserve, southern Bahia (A. C. De Luca in litt. 2007). In north-east Paraguay deforestation was 20% between 1997 and 2001, and appears to be continuing at a similar rate. The Paraguayan population is also coming under increasing pressure from trapping (historically a localised threat), with both males and females readily available in Asunción every year. Agricultural conversion and deforestation for mining and plantation production historically threatened its habitat (Fearnside 1996). Current key threats are urbanisation, industrialisation, agricultural expansion, colonisation and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
It has been recorded in Iguazú National Park (Herrera undated) and Reserva de Biosfera Yaboty (Reserva de uso Multiple Guarani and Reserva Natural Cultural Papel Misionero [A. Bodrati and J. I. Areta in litt. 2012), but birds may only occur there on migration. No parks in Argentina protect a stable population (Bodrati et al. 2010). In Paraguay, there are few protected areas with populations of this species (A. Bodrati in litt. 2007). In Brazil it occurs in Intervales State Park during part of the year, and at Guapiaçu Private Ecological Reserve (REGUA) (Kirwan and Green 2011, Pimentel and Olmos 2011). Around Reserva de Bosque Mbaracayu, Paraguay, the species is featured in outreach campaigns by high school students.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Reduce trapping for the cage bird trade through monitoring and awareness campaigns. Evaluate status in Establecimiento San Jorge and neighbouring Iguazú National Park and Urugua-í Provincial Park, Misiones, Argentina, to determine whether the species occurs regularly or only passes through (Bodrati and Cockle 2006). Protect sites in Paraguay where there are still populations of the species.

Identification

26-28 cm. A striking white forest bird. Male is all white with bare skin around eyes, throat and lower neck, turquoise with inconspicuous black bristles. The smaller female is olive above with blackish crown and sides of head. Throat narrowly streaked white. Pale yellowish underparts coarsely streaked with olive. Similar spp. Male unmistakable in range. Female is larger than the Sharpbill Oxyruncus cristatus which has a conical bill and a characteristic scaly effect on face. Female Bearded Bellbird P. averano is very similar with a less dusky crown. Voice Loud and far carrying series of metallic koínk calls and a loud prróink. Hints The obvious call gives away its presence but is nevertheless hard to locate. Can be found at favoured fruiting trees.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., O'Brien, A., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

Contributors
Guimarães Diniz, M., Develey, P., De Luca, A., Bodrati, A., Olmos, F.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Procnias nudicollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2017.