NT
Bare-throated Bellbird Procnias nudicollis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 80000-130000 poor suspected 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-24 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-24 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.54 - - -

Population justification: It is locally common in Brazil (F. Olmos in litt. 2003) and Paraguay (especially in Canindeyú, San Pedro, and Amambay) (A. Bodrati in litt. 2007), but rare in many sites and rare in Argentina (Bodrati and Cockle 2006). In Argentina, there are suspected to be fewer than 250 mature individuals (MAyDS and Aves Argentinas 2017).

A survey using line transects and acoustic-based distance sampling in primary forest in Pico do Marumbi State Park, Parana, estimated 15 adult males per km2 (95% CI 11.9-18.7; Oliveira 2012). Surveys in Irati National Forest found that the species was 2.6 times more abundant in natural Araucaria forest than in Araucaria plantations (Volpato et al. 2010). Surveys in and around Capão Bonito National Forest found that the species was 2.23 times more abundant in native forest than in planted forest, and 1.25 times more abundant in native forest than in agricultural areas (de Matos et al. 2018).

Based on the area of forest within the mapped range with at least 75% canopy cover in 2010 (c.345,000 km2; Global Forest Watch 2020), a population density of 35.7-56.1 individuals per km2 (Oliveira 2012) and assuming 1% of the habitat is occupied, the population size is tentatively suspected to be in the range 123,165-193,545 individuals, roughly equating to 82,110-129,030 mature individuals and here placed in the band 80,000 - 130,000 mature individuals.

The subpopulation structure is not known.

Trend justification: It appears to have disappeared from some areas of interior semi deciduous Atlantic Forest, and declined in larger remnants, in São Paulo and Paraná states, Brazil (V. Cavarvere in litt. 2020). However, where a forest remnant has been protected and restored in Bahia, the species has recolonised over the past decade and become abundant, expanding its range into areas of secondary forest (K. M. Flesher in litt. 2017, 2018).

Over 17 years from 2002 to 2019, approximately 14% of tree cover with at least 50% canopy cover was lost from within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2020). From this information, the species's population is inferred to be declining.

A comparison of the results of surveys carried out in 2005-2006 with those carried out 30 years earlier, in a semideciduous forest remnant in the state of São Paulo, found that the species's abundance had declined by 71% across 30 years, which is a rate equivalent to 50% over three generations (Cavarzere et al. 2012).

The species is threatened by trapping as well as by deforestation. It is assumed that trapping may have contributed an additional 10% decline. The species's population size is therefore assumed to have undergone a reduction of up to 24% over the past three generations (17 years), and is assumed to continue to decline at the same rate.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Parque Nacional Iguazú y alrededores
Paraguay Bosque Mbaracayú
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco
Paraguay Arroyo Tagatiya
Paraguay Cerrados de Concepción
Paraguay Cerro Guazú
Paraguay Estancia Felicidad
Argentina Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge
Argentina Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero
Paraguay Ypané Medio
Paraguay Paso Curuzú
Paraguay Estancia Sombrero
Paraguay Ka'aguy Rory
Paraguay Morombi
Paraguay Serranías de San Joaquín
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Limoy
Paraguay Reserva Itabó - Itaipú
Argentina San Antonio
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Alegría
Argentina San Pedro
Paraguay Ypeti
Paraguay Tapyta
Brazil A.P.A. de Guaratuba
Brazil Engenho Coimbra (Usina Serra Grande)
Brazil Murici
Brazil Itanagra
Brazil Mata da Campina e Fragmentos Adjacentes
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro
Brazil Baixo-Sul
Brazil Boa Nova / Serra da Ouricana
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Santa Teresa
Brazil Serras das Lontras e do Javi
Brazil Reserva Biológica de Duas Bocas
Brazil Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores
Brazil Encostas da Região de Domingos Martins
Brazil Complexo Pedra Azul / Forno Grande
Brazil Parque Nacional do Caparaó
Brazil Serra Bonita
Brazil Reserva Biológica União
Brazil Serra dos Órgãos
Brazil Estação Veracruz
Brazil Reserva Biológica de Poço das Antas
Brazil Serra do Tinguá
Brazil Maciços da Tijuca e Pedra Branca
Brazil Ilha Grande
Brazil Campos Gerais do Paraná
Brazil Serra do Marumbi
Brazil Parque Nacional do Iguaçu
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Caraguatatuba e Picinguaba)
Brazil Área de Proteção Ambiental de Guaratuba
Brazil Serra da Cantareira
Brazil Região de Blumenau
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Santos e São Sebastião)
Brazil Serra do Tabuleiro State Park
Brazil Ilhabela State Park (Parque Estadual de Ilhabela IBA)
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins
Brazil Ilhas Comprida e Cananéia
Brazil Serra da Bocaina / Paraty / Angra dos Reis
Brazil Região dos Aparados da Serra
Brazil São Francisco Xavier / Monte Verde

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1150 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Procnias nudicollis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/10/2021.