Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2015 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,050,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 310,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 1,099,000-1,149,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2017). The European breeding population is estimated at 3,700-9,000 pairs, which equates to 7,400-18,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The East Asian-Australasian Flyway population has been estimated at 325,000 individuals (Hansen et al. 2016).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is thought to be decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe (lapponica population) the breeding population trend is unknown however the wintering population trend is increasing (BirdLife International 2015). In West Africa (taymyrensis population) the population decreased between 2003 and 2014 and between 1979 and 2014 (745,803 wintering birds in 1980s, 516,920 in the 1990s and 497,433 in the 2010s) (van Roomen et al. 2014). In East Africa (taymyrensis population) the population trend is unknown (Wetlands International 2015). Approximately 27-28% of the global population uses the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (menzbieri and baueri populations) and there is considerable concern that loss of intertidal stopover habitat in the Yellow Sea region of East Asia is driving population declines in shorebirds (Amano et al. 2010, Yang et al. 2011). Both the menzbieri and baueri populations have experienced strong declines (declines of 79.1% and 30.2% over three generations) according to monitoring data from around Australia and New Zealand (Studds et al. in prep.). An analysis of survival rates provides additional evidence for declines in the menzbieri population. Survival of the species remained relatively high in north-west Australia, however during time away from Australia the population began to decline in 2011, with an annual survival rate of 0.71 between 2011 and 2012 (Piersma et al. 2016). Given the low survival, the study suggests that the population will halve within four years. Recent data also suggests that the baueri population may decline by 44% within 10 years (Conklin et al. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea V Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant
Nauru N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Tacumshin lake
Ireland The Cull and Killag
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Baldoyle Bay
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Ballysadare Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Lough Foyle
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Lundåkra Bight
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Balgzand
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Westplaat
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast
Netherlands Dollard
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Närängänvaara-Virmajoki-Romevaara
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Urdaibai - Matxitxako
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Eo river estuary-Barayo beach-Ría de Foz
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Santoña marshes
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Santander Bay
Spain Janubio saltpans
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón
Spain Sotavento beach
Ukraine Syvash Bay
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Baie de Vilaine
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Bonne Anse
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
United Kingdom Belfast Lough
United Kingdom Benfleet and Southend Marshes
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Burry Inlet
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Bae Caerfyrddin/Carmarthen Bay
United Kingdom Chesil Beach and the Fleet
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Deben Estuary
United Kingdom Dee Estuary
United Kingdom Lower Derwent Valley
United Kingdom Duddon Estuary
United Kingdom Dundrum Inner Bay
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Inner Clyde
United Kingdom Killough Bay
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Medway Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Mill Dam, Shapinsay
United Kingdom Minsmere - Walberswick
United Kingdom Montrose Basin
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Mainland Coast
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Pagham Harbour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Poole Harbour
United Kingdom Portsmouth Harbour
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South Westray Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
United Kingdom Stour and Orwell Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Swansea Bay - Blackpill
United Kingdom Tamar Estuaries Complex
United Kingdom Taw and Torridge Estuary
United Kingdom Teesmouth and Cleveland Coast
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
United Kingdom Thanet Coast and Sandwich Bay
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom Wigtown Bay
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom Sounds around Wyre
United Kingdom Breydon Water
United Kingdom Jersey Shoreline
United Kingdom Guernsey Shoreline
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Migliarino-San Rossore
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Ho Bugt meadows
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Øvre Pasvik
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Krummhörn-Westermarsch
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Norway Varangerfjord
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Netherlands Delta Coast
Russia (European) Seskar island
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
China (mainland) Laizhou Wan
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Yubu-do island
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Pointe de Grave
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
Yemen Aden
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Australia Great Sandy Strait
Australia Moreton Bay and Pumicestone Passage
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Australia Roebuck Bay
USA Egegik Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay
Germany Dollart
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Einswarder Plate / Tegeler Plate
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Ireland Malahide/ Broadmeadow Estuary
Ireland Courtmacsherry, Broadstrand and Dunworley Complex
Ireland Blackwater estuary
Ireland Drumcliff Bay and Ballintemple
United Kingdom Firth of tay
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom The Wash
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Odense Fjord
Poland Puck Bay
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nysa reservoir
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
Norway Altaelvmunningen
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Varanger Peninsula
France Jaudy et Sept-Iles
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
USA Kuskokwim River Delta
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Väinameri
China (mainland) Pulandian-Jinzhou east coast
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
United Arab Emirates Abu Al Sayayif
United Arab Emirates Marawah Island
Brazil Mangue Seco
United Arab Emirates Ba Al Ghaylam
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Wudi-Zhanhua-Hekou coast
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
Guinea-Bissau Rio Cacheu
Guinea-Bissau Lagoas de Cufada
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Cantanhez forests
Sierra Leone Yawri Bay
Senegal Djoudj wetlands
Senegal Parc National de la Langue de Barbarie
Senegal La Petite Côte
Senegal Joal-Fadiouth
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Kalissaye Avifaunal Reserve
Mauritania Chott Boul
Mauritania Diawling National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 440 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Spartina anglica Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Unknown Unknown No/Negligible Impact: 0
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Limosa lapponica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/06/2022.