NT
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2015 Near Threatened A2abc+3bc+4abc
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,050,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 310,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 1,099,000-1,149,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2017). The European breeding population is estimated at 3,700-9,000 pairs, which equates to 7,400-18,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The East Asian-Australasian Flyway population has been estimated at 325,000 individuals (Hansen et al. 2016).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is thought to be decreasing, although some populations may be stable and others have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe (lapponica population) the breeding population trend is unknown however the wintering population trend is increasing (BirdLife International 2015). In West Africa (taymyrensis population) the population decreased between 2003 and 2014 and between 1979 and 2014 (745,803 wintering birds in 1980s, 516,920 in the 1990s and 497,433 in the 2010s) (van Roomen et al. 2014). In East Africa (taymyrensis population) the population trend is unknown (Wetlands International 2015). Approximately 27-28% of the global population uses the East Asian-Australasian Flyway (menzbieri and baueri populations) and there is considerable concern that loss of intertidal stopover habitat in the Yellow Sea region of East Asia is driving population declines in shorebirds (Amano et al. 2010, Yang et al. 2011). Both the menzbieri and baueri populations have experienced strong declines (declines of 79.1% and 30.2% over three generations) according to monitoring data from around Australia and New Zealand (Studds et al. in prep.). An analysis of survival rates provides additional evidence for declines in the menzbieri population. Survival of the species remained relatively high in north-west Australia, however during time away from Australia the population began to decline in 2011, with an annual survival rate of 0.71 between 2011 and 2012 (Piersma et al. 2016). Given the low survival, the study suggests that the population will halve within four years. Recent data also suggests that the baueri population may decline by 44% within 10 years (Conklin et al. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Algeria N Extant
American Samoa N Extant
Angola N Extant
Armenia N Extant
Australia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Austria N Extant
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus V Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burundi V Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant
Czech Republic N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea V Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Fiji N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kenya N Extant
Kiribati N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Latvia N Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia V Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Maldives N Extant
Malta V Extant
Marshall Islands N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mauritius V Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Mexico V Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant Yes Yes
Namibia N Extant
Nauru N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant
Niue (to New Zealand) N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea N Extant
Philippines N Extant Yes Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Réunion (to France) V Extant
Romania V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Samoa N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant Yes Yes
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant Yes Yes
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tonga N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Eighty Mile Beach
Australia Great Sandy Strait
Australia Moreton Bay and Pumicestone Passage
Australia Roebuck Bay
China (mainland) Laizhou Wan
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Ho Bugt meadows
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Kevo
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Baie de Goulven
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Cap Gris-nez
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Ireland Baldoyle Bay
Ireland Ballymacoda
Ireland Bannow Bay
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Castlemaine Harbour
Ireland Cork Harbour
Ireland Cummeen Strand (Sligo Harbour)
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Dundalk Bay
Ireland Dungarvan Harbour
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Killala Bay
Ireland Lough Foyle
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Tralee Bay and Barrow Harbour
Ireland Tramore Backstrand
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Malaysia North-central Selangor coast
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Morocco Lagune de Khnifiss
Netherlands Balgzand (superseded 2007)
Netherlands Dollard (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Frisian Wadden Sea coast (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Griend (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Groningen Wadden Sea coast (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg (superseded 29/5/2017)
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Norway Altaelvmunningen
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Øvre Anárjohka
Norway Reisa
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Moroshechnaya River
Russia (Asian) Ola lagoon
Russia (Asian) Perevolochny bay
Russia (Asian) Rekinninskaya bay
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Russia (European) Seskar island
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Yubu-do island
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Ebro delta
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Sweden Taavavuoma
Tunisia Kneiss
Ukraine Syvash Bay
United Arab Emirates Khor al Beideh
United Arab Emirates Khor Dubai
United Kingdom Chichester and Langstone Harbours
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of tay
United Kingdom Firth of Tay and Eden Estuary
United Kingdom Gibraltar Point
United Kingdom Hamford Water
United Kingdom Humber Estuary
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Lough Foyle and River Foyle
United Kingdom Mid-Essex Coast
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom The Swale
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom The Wash
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
USA Egegik Bay
USA Nelson Lagoon-Mud Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Back Slope suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Foreslope (Outer Reef Slope) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Rubble Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Inter-Reef Soft Substrate suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Lagoon suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Coral Reef - Outer Reef Channel suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 440 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Spartina anglica Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Named species - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Unknown Unknown No/Negligible Impact: 0
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Limosa lapponica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/12/2017.