Bank Cormorant Phalacrocorax neglectus


Barnes, K.N. 2000. The Eskom Red Data Book of birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Cooper, J. 1981. Biology of the Bank Cormorant, Part 1: distribution, population size, movements and conservation. Ostrich 52: 208-215.

Cooper, J. 1985. Biology of the bank cormorant. 3. Foraging behaviour. Ostrich: 86-95.

Cooper, J. 1987. Biology of the Bank Cormorant, Part 5: Clutch size, eggs and incubation. Ostrich 58: 1-8.

Crawford R.J.M., Dyer, B.M., Upfold, L. and Ward, V.L. 2001. Age at first breeding of Bank Cormorants, Phalacrocorax neglectus, and Cape Cormorants, P. capensis. Ostrich 72: 145-148.

Crawford RJM, Cockcroft AC, Dyer BM, Upfold L. 2008. Divergent trends in bank cormorants Phalacrocorax neglectus breeding in South Africa’s Western Cape consistent with a distributional shift of rock lobsters Jasus lalandii. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 161–166.

Crawford RJM, Makhado AB, Whittington PA, Randall RM, Oosthuizen WH, Waller LJ. 2015. A changing distribution of seabirds in South Africa – the possible impact of climate and its consequences. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 3( 10): 1–10, doi: 10.3389/fevo.2015.000010.

Crawford, R.J.M., Davis, S.A., Harding, R.T., Jackson, L.F., Leshoro, T.M., Meyer, M.A., Randall, R.M., Underhill, L.G., Upfold, L., van Dalsen, A.P., van der Merwe, E., Whittington, P.A., Williams, A.J. and Wolfaardt, A.C. 2000. Initial impact of the Treasure oil spill on seabirds off western South Africa. South African Journal of Marine Science 22: 157-176.

Crawford, R.J.M., Dyer, B.M., Cordes, I. and Williams, A.J. 1999. Seasonal pattern of breeding, population trend and conservation status of bank cormorants Phalacrocorax neglectus off south western Africa. Biological Conservation 87(1): 49-58.

Currie H, Grobler CA, Kemper J. 2009. Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area. Concept note, background document and management proposal for the declaration of Marine Protected Areas on and around the Namibian offshore islands and adjacent coastal area. Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Namibia.

de Ponte Machado, M. 2007. Is predation on seabirds a new foraging behaviour for Great White Pelicans? History, foraging strategies and prey defensive responses. In: Kirkman SP (ed.) Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, Cape Town.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Du Toit, M.; Boere, G. C.; Cooper, J.; de Villiers, M. S.; Kemper, J.; Lenton, B.; Petersen, S. L.; Simmons, R. E.; Whittington, P. A.; Byers, O. P. 2002. Conservation assessment and management plan for southern African seabirds.

Harrison, J.A.; Allan, D.G.; Underhill, L.G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A.J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C.J. 1997. The Atlas of Southern African Birds. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Kemper, J.; Underhill, L. G.; Crawford, R. J. M.; Kirkman, S. P. 2007. Revision of the conservation status of seabirds and seals breeding in the Benguela Ecosystem. In: Kirkman, S. P. (ed.), Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem), pp. 325-342.

Ludynia K, Kemper J, Roux J-P. 2012. The Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area: using seabird tracking data to define boundaries and assess their adequacy. Biology Conservation 156: 136–145.

Ludynia, K., Jones, R., Kemper, J., Garthe, S. and Underhill, L.G. 2010. Foraging behaviour of bank cormorants in Namibia: implications for conservation. Endangered Species Research 12: 31-40.

Nelson, J. B. 2005. Pelicans, cormorants and their relatives. Pelecanidae, Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Anhingidae, Fregatidae, Phaethontidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Sherley RB, Botha P, Underhill LG, Ryan PG, van Zyl D, Cockcroft AC, Crawford RJ, Dyer BM, Cook TR. 2016. Defining ecologically-relevant scales for spatial protection using long-term data on an endangered seabird and local prey availability. PeerJ Preprints 4: e2122v.

Sherley RB, Ludynia K, Underhill LG, Jones R, Kemper J. 2012. Storms and heat limit the nest success of bank cormorants: implications of future climate change for a surface-nesting seabird in southern Africa. Journal of Ornithology 153: 441–455.

Spatz, D. R., Holmes, N. D., Reguero, B. G., Butchart, S. H. M., Tershy, B. R., and Croll, D. A. 2017. Managing Invasive mammals to conserve globally threatened seabirds in a changing climate. Conservation Letters 10: 736-747.

Waller, L.J.; Underhill, L.G. 2007. Management of avian cholera Pasteurella multocida outbreaks on Dyer Island, South Africa, 2002–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 29: 105–111.

Wanless, R. 2010. The banks are collapsing. Africa - Birds & Birding 15(5): 70.

Williams, A.J. and Burger, A.E. 1978. The ecology of the prey of Cape and Bank Cormorants. Cormorant 4: 28-29.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Cormorant Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax neglectus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/04/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/04/2023.