EN
Bank Cormorant Phalacrocorax neglectus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2ace+3ce+4ace A2ace+3ce+4ace; C1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2ace+3ce+4ace
2016 Endangered A2ace+3ce+4ace
2013 Endangered A2ace+3ce+4ace
2012 Endangered A2ace+3ce+4ace
2010 Endangered A2a,c,e; A3c,e; A4a,c,e
2008 Endangered A2a,c,e; A3c,e; A4a,c,e
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Near Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 402,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 476,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9,300
Number of locations 45 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 5000 good estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 62.8 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 62.8 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 80-90 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.5 - - -

Population justification: The total breeding population was estimated at 2,500 pairs (5,000 mature individuals) in 2015. This roughly equates to 7,500 individuals in total.

Trend justification: The overall rate of decline between 1990 and 2006 was 4.3% per year (Kemper et al. 2007), equivalent to a decrease of 62.8% over three generations (22.5 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Namibia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Namibia Ichaboe Island
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands
Namibia Mercury Island
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Possession Island
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve
South Africa Robben Island
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pasteurella multocida Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Arctocephalus pusillus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Larus dominicanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Pelecanus onocrotalus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Phalacrocorax neglectus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2019.