Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i) C2a(i); D C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2012 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C2a(i)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,800 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor suspected 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-10 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.6 - - -

Population justification: The species is considered to be rare (CEMAVE 2018). According to the National Red List of Brazil, it is possible to estimate, with a high confidence level, that the total population does not exceed 250 mature individuals and that each subpopulation has fewer than 50 mature individuals (CEMAVE 2018). The population size is therefore placed in the band 50-249 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species was previously easily observed in Espírito Santo, but there have been few, if any, records from the state since the 1990s, despite a large number of observers and researchers searching for the species in the region, and it may now be extirpated from the state (CEMAVE 2018, A. Lees in litt. 2019, G. Kirwan in litt. 2019, eBird 2019). From this information, it is inferred that the population size has declined recently. Based on records of the species, the species's extent of occurrence is inferred to have declined by approximately 30-40% since the 1990s; based on this, a population reduction of 20-29% over three generations is suspected (13.8 years). An analysis of remote-sensed data on forest loss estimated that forest was lost within the species's range from 2000-2012 at a rate equivalent to 4% across three generations (Tracewski et. al. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares
Brazil Santa Cruz Cabrália / Belmonte
Brazil Estação Veracruz
Brazil Parque Nacional de Monte Pascoal
Brazil Bandeira / Macarani

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 270 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Cotinga maculata. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022.