Bananal Antbird Cercomacra ferdinandi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 209,000 medium
Number of locations 15-25 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 15000-350000 medium estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -

Population justification: Although restricted in range and extent of habitat, it is common where it occurs. A study of ten territories at RPPN Canguçu in Tocantins found an average territory density of 0.31 per ha (31 per km2), ranging from 0.14 to 0.64 ha (Crozariol 2011). Based on these densities, a population of 220,000 pairs was estimated for Cantão State Park (Crozariol 2011). Studies at the Murici and Preto rivers, tributaries of the Araguaia, in the north of Tocantins, detected at least 22 individuals in a 1 km transect in floodplain vegetation (Dornas and Pinheiro 2018).

Based on knowledge of the species's distribution and population densities, the population size has been estimated at 15,000 - 20,000 mature individuals (T. Dornas in litt. 2020). Based on the recorded population densities, the area of tree cover with 50% canopy cover within within the species's mapped range (estimated at 46,600 km2; Global Forest Watch 2020), and assuming 10-25% of the forest is occupied, the population is estimated at 195,720-489,300 individuals, roughly equating to 130,480 - 326,200 mature individuals. Based on these estimates, the population size is here placed in the band 15,000 - 350,000 mature individuals.

There are no large gaps between areas with records and the species is considered to have a relatively high dispersal ability (Borges et al. 2019), so it is assumed to have one subpopulation.

Trend justification: The Estreito Hydro-Power Complex was recently constructed in the Tocantins-Araguaia river basin and within the species's range (T. Dornas in litt. 2020), going into operation in 2011. Remote-sensed data on tree cover indicated a loss of 16% of tree cover with 50% canopy cover within the mapped range over 10 years from 2010-2019 (Global Forest Watch 2020). From this information, the species is inferred to be undergoing a continuing decline in population size. An analysis of the impact of disturbance on forest species in Pará found that in private lands or sustainable-use reserves, the impact of disturbance on biodiversity was equivalent to that of an additional 51% loss of forest (Barlow et al. 2016). However, this species is known to be tolerant of disturbed habitats, and it occurs in flooded forest, which is likely to be subject to lower levels of deforestation than terra firma forest. Therefore, a population reduction of 10-24% is suspected to have occurred over the last ten years.

Further hydroelectric projects underway and planned for the lower Araguaia and middle Tocantins are expected to cause the loss of habitat in about 50% of its geographical distribution (D. Lima in litt. 2020). The species is dependent on habitats generated by the cycle of flooding and ebbing of the rivers, and its population was projected to decline by nearly 30% over 20 years from 2018 (D. Lima in litt. 2020). This equates to a decline of up to 16% over ten years. However, plans for further hydroelectricity plants are currently on hold and they are not expected to be constructed within the next 5-10 years (T. Dornas in litt. 2020).

If the average 2017-2019 rate of tree cover loss were to continue over ten years, this would equate to a loss of 25% of forest within the species's range. Adding the potential impact of disturbance, the population size could be suspected to undergo a reduction of up to 37%. However, given that the average rate of forest loss over the past decade was slower than this, and the main threat of hydroelectricity development is projected to cause of reduction of up to 16%, the population reduction over the next ten years is suspected to be smaller than the 2017-2019 deforestation rate may suggest. Overall, a population reduction of 10-29% is suspected over the next ten years.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil São Pedro da Água Branca
Brazil Parque Estadual do Cantão
Brazil Matas Ciliares do Rio do Coco e Afluentes
Brazil Interflúvio dos Rios das Mortes e Araguaia
Brazil Monumento Natural das Árvores Fossilizadas e Adjacências

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Cercomacra ferdinandi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2022.