Bali Myna Leucopsar rothschildi


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
B1ab(v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(v); C2a(i,ii); D B1ab(v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Critically Endangered B1ab(v); C2a(i,ii); D
2018 Critically Endangered B1ab(v);C2a(i,ii);D
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(v);C2a(i,ii);D
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(v);C2a(i,ii);D
2013 Critically Endangered B1ab(v);C2a(i,ii);D
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(v);C2a(i,ii);D
2010 Critically Endangered B1a+b(v); C2a(ii); D1
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(v); C2a(ii); D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land mass type land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 38 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 medium estimated 2009
Population trend decreasing good inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.2 - - -

Population justification: At the release site in West Bali National Park, c.50 individuals were estimated in 2008 (G. Dijkman in litt. 2008). At the release site on Nusa Penida Island, the population was recorded as 65 adults and 62 juveniles in 2009 (C. Kenwrick in litt. 2009). In February and March 2015, staff of Begawan Foundation and Wildlife Reserves Singapore undertook an audit on Nusa Penida and Nusa Lembongan Islands, which only found 12 adults and a possible 2 birds in nests (Halaouate 2015). At least at one other release site, the species appears to be doing well (Marsden 2017). In April 2019, 191 individuals were counted at Bali Barat National Park, following at least 100 birds being released in November 2018, although many were immature individuals (T. Squires in litt. 2019). However, as IUCN stipulates that re-introduced individuals must have produced viable offspring before they are counted as mature individuals, the population size is precautionarily assumed to be fewer than 50 mature individuals, although this may warrant revising upwards if there is continued evidence of breeding success.

Trend justification: The wild population has been maintained only by release of captive birds, so is essentially gradually declining. The trend of the introduced colonies is difficult to determine; while the two major populations on Nusa Penida Island and in West Bali National Park initially increased to over 50 individuals each in 2008-2009 (G. Dijkman in litt. 2008; C. Kenwrick in litt. 2009), further increasing to 120 birds on Nusa Penida Island by 2012-2013 (Nijman et al. 2017), the colonies on both Nusa Penida and Nusa Lembongan Islands decreased to less than 20 birds by 2015 due to illegal trapping, with a reported 85% decline on Nusa Penida alone (M. Halaouate in litt. 2013; Halaouate 2015; Nijman et al. 2017).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations possible resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 175 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Leucopsar rothschildi. Downloaded from on 30/05/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 30/05/2023.