del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
|2010||Critically Endangered||B1a+b(v); C2a(ii); D1|
|2009||Critically Endangered||B1a+b(v); C2a(ii); D1|
|Migratory status||not a migrant||Forest dependency||Medium|
|Land mass type||
Land-mass type - shelf island
|Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2)||38||medium|
|Number of locations||1||-|
|Estimate||Data quality||Derivation||Year of estimate|
|No. of mature individuals||1-49||medium||estimated||2009|
|Decline (3 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (5 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation future)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future)||-||-||-|
|Number of subpopulations||1||-||-||-|
|Generation length (yrs)||4.1||-||-||-|
Population justification: At the release site in West Bali National Park, c.50 individuals were estimated in 2008 (G. Dijkman in litt. 2008). At the release site on Nusa Penida Island, the population was recorded as 65 adults and 62 juveniles in 2009 (C. Kenwrick in litt. 2009). In February and March 2015, staff of Begawan Foundation and Wildlife Reserves Singapore undertook an audit on Nusa Penida and Nusa Lembongan Islands, which only found 12 adults and a possible 2 birds in nests (Halaouate 2015). At least at one other release site, the species appears to be doing well (Marsden 2017). However, as IUCN stipulates that re-introduced individuals must have produced viable offspring before they are counted as mature individuals, the population size is precautionarily assumed to be fewer than 50 mature individuals, although this may warrant revising upwards if there is continued evidence of breeding success.
Trend justification: The wild population has been maintained only by release of captive birds, so is essentially gradually declining. The trend of the introduced colonies is difficult to determine; while the two major populations on Nusa Penida Island and in West Bali National Park initially increased to over 50 individuals each in 2008-2009 (G. Dijkman in litt. 2008, C. Kenwrick in litt. 2009), the colonies on Nusa Penida and Nusa Lembongan Islands decreased to less than 20 birds in 2015, possibly due to illegal trapping (M. Halaouate in litt. 2013, Halaouate 2015).
|Habitat (level 1)||Habitat (level 2)||Importance||Occurrence|
|Altitude||0 - 175 m||Occasional altitudinal limits|
|Threat (level 1)||Threat (level 2)||Impact and Stresses|
|Agriculture & aquaculture||Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Past, Unlikely to Return||Majority (50-90%)||Rapid Declines||Past Impact|
|Biological resource use||Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target)||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Whole (>90%)||Rapid Declines||High Impact: 8|
|Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases||Problematic native species/diseases||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Purpose||Primary form used||Life stage used||Source||Scale||Level||Timing|
|Pets||Whole||Adults and juveniles||Wild||International||Non-trivial||Recent|
|Pets/display animals, horticulture||-||-||-||International||Non-trivial||Recent|
|Pets/display animals, horticulture||-||-||International||Non-trivial||Recent|
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Leucopsar rothschildi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019.