CR
Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A4bcde A4bcde A4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2015 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2013 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2012 Critically Endangered A4bcde
2010 Critically Endangered A4b,c,d,e
2009 Critically Endangered A4b,c,d,e
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 518.5 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,120,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 9 good
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 19000 medium estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-100 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Population justification: Estimates for the breeding population size in the last two decades ranged from about 2,000 to 4,500 pairs (Ruiz and Martí 2004, Arcos 2011a), with the current official figure being 3,142 pairs (ACAP 2012). This includes: Mallorca 900, Menorca 405, Cabrera 475, Ibiza 650, Formentera 712. However, these figures should only be taken as indicative, as breeding sites are most often inaccessible, and therefore their census relies on indirect methods (e.g. counts of rafts, vocalisations, etc.) that are subject to strong biases and inaccuracy. This calls for particular caution in inferring population trends from such data, as estimates from one year to another might simply vary because of changes in methodological assumptions, people involved, and environmental conditions during counts or simply subjective perceptions. In fact, recent research at sea using two approaches (boat-based surveys and coastal counts at the Gibraltar Strait migration bottleneck) point to a global population of about 25,000 individuals, suggesting that the breeding population could be larger than previously assumed (Arcos et al. 2012b, Arroyo et al. 2014). Starting from these global figures, and assuming that the population structure was at equilibrium, Genovart et al. (2016) inferred a breeding population size of about 7,200 pairs, although this optimistic figure should also be taken with caution.

Trend justification: Using a population estimate of 2,000-2,400 breeding pairs, Oro et al. (2004) estimated a mean decline of 7.4% per year and a mean extinction time, as estimated by population viability analysis, of just over 40 years. This equates to an ongoing population decline of more than 80% in three generations (54 years). A new modelling assessment was conducted recently, using new demographic data and improved capture-recapture modelling procedures (Genovart et al. 2016). Furthermore, the new modelling used as a departure point a global population estimate of 23,780 birds, consistent with the recent estimates at sea (Arroyo et al. 2014). Despite these improvements in both the analysis and the background information, the trend was still severely declining, with a population decline of 14% per year, and an average extinction time of 61 years if the current trend is maintained over time. Note that this analysis was conducted assuming a population at equilibrium, that would estimate 7,200 breeding pairs, something that still needs to be confirmed on the ground. If the breeding population is found to be lower, the time to extinction would be shorter. Moreover, the analyses were based on data from an (important) colony free of predators, meaning that the average survival rate of whole population could be even lower.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Albania U Extant
Algeria N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina U Extant
Cape Verde V Extant
Croatia U Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt U Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) U Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece U Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy V Extant
Libya U Extant
Malta U Extant
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro U Extant
Morocco N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Norway V Extant
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia U Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
Sweden V Extant
Tunisia V Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Portugal Berlengas
Portugal Cabo Raso
Portugal Figueira da Foz
Spain Aguas de Formentera y sur de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Baix Llobregat - Garraf
Spain Aguas del Levante de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Norte de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Norte y Oeste de Menorca
Spain Aguas del Poniente de Mallorca
Spain Aguas del Poniente y Norte de Ibiza
Spain Aguas del Sur de Mallorca y Cabrera
Spain Aguas del Sureste de Menorca
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain Archipelago of Cabrera
Spain Bahía de Almería
Spain Bahía de Málaga - Cerro Gordo
Spain Cape Barbaria
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Chingudi-Bidasoa estuary
Spain Coastal cliffs between isles of Malgrats and Cala Figuera
Spain Costa da Morte
Spain Dragonera Island-La Trapa
Spain Entorno marino de las rías Baixas
Spain Estrecho de Gibraltar
Spain Golfo de Cádiz
Spain Isle of Conejera and islets of Bledes and Espartar (Ibiza)
Spain Islets Vedrá and Vedranell
Spain La Mola of Formentera
Spain Mar del Empordà
Spain North and east coasts of Minorca and island of Aire
Spain Plataforma Marina del Delta del Ebro - Columbretes
Spain Plataforma-talud Marinos del Cabo de la Nao
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Tabarca - Cabo de Palos
Spain Tagomago island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Competition, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Puffinus mauretanicus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2017.