CR
Bahama Nuthatch Sitta insularis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Sitta pusilla and S. insularis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as S. pusilla following AOU (1998 & supplements), Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993) and Stotz et al. (1996).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2a; B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D A2a; B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D A2a; B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered A2a; B1ab(iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 10.199999809265137 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 80 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 good estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4 - - -

Population justification: In 2018, four days of intensive surveys for the Bahama Nuthatch, covering all sites where the species has been recorded in recent years, failed to find any individuals (B. Harris in litt. 2018, Reid 2018). Furthermore, once per month for a year, a local bird guide visited one of the main sites where the species was previously recorded, without recording any individuals (B. Harris in litt. 2018). In Spring 2018, a further series of surveys recorded a single individual (N. Collar verbally 2018). The small number of recent sightings suggests that the population size of Bahama Nuthatch may now be extremely small. The population is therefore placed in the band 1-49 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population size was previously estimated at 1,800 individuals (equating to approximately 1,200 mature individuals) in 2004 (Hayes et al. 2004). The lack of records during intensive surveys over four days in January 2018 and the single record during further surveys in Spring 2018 indicate that the population has declined (B. Harris in litt. 2018, Reid 2018) and is now estimated to number no more than 50 mature individuals. This represents a population reduction of over 90% over the past three generation lengths (12 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Pantherophis guttatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Passer domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Procyon lotor Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sturnus vulgaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition, Reduced reproductive success
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Sitta insularis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/03/2019.