CR
Baer's Pochard Aythya baeri



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii) A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(i,ii); D A2cd+3cd+4cd; C1+2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2018 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2017 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd; C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2015 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Critically Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,270,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 7,570,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150-700 medium inferred 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-100 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-100 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.6 - - -

Population justification: Wang et al. (2012) stated that the global population is likely less than 1,000 individuals and could be much less than this, and so it is placed in the band 250-999 individuals, equating to 167-666 mature individuals, rounded here to 150-700 mature individuals, which now potentially can be considered to be in one sub-populations (R. Hearn in litt. 2016).

Trend justification: An extremely rapid population decline over the last three generations is estimated from numbers recorded on wintering and breeding grounds, as well as migration routes on the Hebei Coast, China (J. Hornskov in litt. 2005), and is thought to be caused by on-going hunting and habitat degradation; hence, the decline is expected to continue at this rate, though the reasons for the decline are not fully understood (R. Hearn in litt. 2016).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Pakistan V Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Vietnam Xuan Thuy
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Bangladesh Aila Beel
Bangladesh Hakaluki Haor
Bangladesh Hail Haor
China (mainland) Huma He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huzhong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xunbiela He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Keluo He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Maoshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Bacha Dao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Fenglin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Laodengshan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Naoli He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing Lazi Siberian Tiger Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tailai Dongfanghong
China (mainland) Qihulin He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yueya Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xingkai Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Jingpo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dashanzuizi
China (mainland) Songhua Hu, Baishan Hu and Hongshi Hu
China (mainland) Baihe-Wanbao
China (mainland) Tumen River at Jingxin-Fangchuan
China (mainland) Yunfeng Reservoir
China (mainland) Wolong Hu (Xi Paozi)
China (mainland) Longtan Reservoir
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Nuomin - Bila He - Dayangshu
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hasuhai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ulansuhai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Karze Reservoir
China (mainland) Yinchuan plain
China (mainland) Qingtongxia reservoir and Yellow River wetlands in Zhongning and Zhongwei
China (mainland) Liupan Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Loess Plateau in western Gansu
China (mainland) Cao Hai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tuanbowa Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nansihu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taihang Shan Macaque Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanmenxia Dam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoyou Hu
China (mainland) Shaobo Hu Lake Area
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Hangzhou Wan
China (mainland) Taizhou Wan
North Korea Mount Chilbo
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Kyee-ni Inn
Myanmar Taung Kan at Sedawgyi
Myanmar Myittha Lakes
Myanmar Kaladan River
Myanmar Moyingyi
Thailand Nong Bong Kai
Thailand Sanambin
Thailand Bung Khong Long
Thailand Bung Boraphet
Thailand Khao Sam Roi Yot
Thailand Thale Noi
Thailand Lower Central Basin
Taiwan, China Chu'an
China (mainland) Chi Hu Nature Reserve
Philippines Candaba swamp
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Kievka and Chernaya river basins
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Lower Tumen river
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
India Chakrashila Complex
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Kaziranga National Park
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Majuli
India Orang National Park
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Sibsagar Tanks
India Tamaranga - Dalani - Bhairab Complex
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Nalabana Bird Sanctuary (Chilika Lake)
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Asan Barrage
India Farakka Barrage and adjoining area
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
South Korea Han-gang river
South Korea Junam reservoir
India Khangchendzonga National Park and Biosphere Reserve
Vietnam Thai Thuy
China (mainland) Changshou Hu
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
China (mainland) Dunhuang Nature Reserve and Western Qilian Shan mountains
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shishankou Reservoir
China (mainland) Mengjin Huanghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Rong Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gaoligong Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heqing zhaoxiamingshen Nature Reserve
India Barak River
India Sareswar Beel
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
India Maguri and Motapung Beels
India Loktak Lake
India Rudrasagar Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) marginal breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Aythya nyroca Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Hybridisation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aythya baeri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/10/2020.