LC
Azure Tit Cyanistes cyanus



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be decreasing, but it is not thought to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size may be moderately small to large, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Population justification
The European population is estimated at 3,900-15,800 pairs, which equates to 7,800-31,700 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 35% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 22,300-90,600 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.

Trend justification
In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 12.6 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Ecology

This species inhabits a wide variety of lowland forested habitats, including light deciduous and mixed woodlands with shrubby underlayer, also turanga (Populus euphratica) groves, swamp-forest, riverine thickets of willow (Salix), tamarisk (Tamarix) in semi-desert oases, birch (Betula) or poplar (Populus). It also uses trees along ditches at edges of cultivation, orchards, marshland edges and bushy or shrubby areas. In more upland areas it breeds in birch forest with willow and larch (Larix) thickets and stands of spruce (Picea) or juniper (Juniperus) (Gosler et al. 2007). The breeding season is April to June (Gosler et al. 2007). In European Russia, eggs are laid from mid-May (Snow and Perrins 1998). The species is monogamous and the female builds the nest, which is mostly a cup of dry grasses, moss, plant down, animal fur and wool, in a hole or cavity in a tree, sometimes among rocks or in a hole in building, occasionally in a pole. Clutches are usually seven to eleven eggs (Gosler et al. 2007). It mainly feeds on invertebrates, including adults, pupae, larvae and eggs, as well as spiders, seeds and fruit. The species is resident over much of its range (Snow and Perrins 1998). However montane populations descend to lower levels in autumn and winter, it is also periodically irruptive (Gosler et al. 2007).

Threats

There are currently no known significant threats to this species.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Bern Convention Appendix II. There are currently no known conservation measures for this species within Europe.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Currently no conservation measures are needed for this species within Europe.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Calvert, R.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Cyanistes cyanus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/08/2019.