Audubon's Shearwater Puffinus lherminieri


Taxonomic note
Puffinus lherminieri (incorporating baroli), P. bannermani, P. persicus, P. subalaris and P. bailloni (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. lherminieri and baroli was subsumed under P. assimilis, following Brooke (2004), before which P. bannermani and P. persicus where split following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2017 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 11,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 30000-59000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 22.3 - - -

Population justification: The nominate subspecies has been estimated to number 7,400-20,500 pairs (Mackin 2016), with subspecies boydi estimated at 5,000 pairs on the Cape Verde Islands, and subspecies baroli numbering 895-1,741 pairs on the Azores (BirdLife International 2015), c.1,642 pairs in the Madeira region (BirdLife International 2015) (most recent estimate of c.300 pairs in the Desertas Islands, 1,500-2,200 in the Savage Islands [reviewed by Brooke 2004]) and c.400 pairs and declining in the Canary Islands (Rodríguez et al. 2012, BirdLife International 2015). Overall, this implies that the total population size includes more than 30,000 mature individuals, up to potentially 58,570 mature individuals. The population size is therefore placed in the range 30,000-59,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to the impacts of introduced species. The European population size is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 10% in 66.9 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015), and also the Caribbean population appears to have undergone declines, at least historically (Mackin 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Bahamas N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belize V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil V Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant Yes
Canada V Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Gambia U Extant
Grenada N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea U Extant
Guinea-Bissau U Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Jamaica N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania U Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Panama N Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Senegal U Extant
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Barthelemy (to France) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Martin (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Turks Bank Seabird Cays
Anguilla (to UK) Dog Island
Anguilla (to UK) Sombrero Island
Bahamas Graham's Harbour
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Saba
St Martin (to France) Tintamarre
Antigua and Barbuda Redonda
Martinique (to France) Îlets et falaises de Sainte Anne
Brazil Arquipélago de Fernando de Noronha
Bahamas Conception Island National Park
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Barbados Bird Rock
Bahamas Cay Sal
Bahamas Samana Cay
Bahamas Mira Por Vos
Bahamas Low Cay, High Cay and Sandy Hook
Bahamas Exuma Cays Land and Sea Park
Bahamas Allan's Cays
Trinidad and Tobago Little Tobago Island
Trinidad and Tobago St Giles Islands
Virgin Islands (to USA) Saba Island and Cays
Guadeloupe (to France) Falaises Nord et Îlet de Vieux-Fort de Marie-Galante
Guadeloupe (to France) Falaises du Nord Grande-Terre
Virgin Islands (to USA) North-west Cays
Guyana North-west Coastline
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Cape Verde Ilhéus do Rombo
Morocco Canary current shelf 2
Morocco Canary current shelf 3
Morocco Canary current shelf 1
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Portugal Lajes do Pico
Cape Verde Ponta Costa
Cape Verde Braco Cagarra - Piram
Cape Verde Tope Coroa Natural Park
Cape Verde Cruzinha Natural Park
Cape Verde Coastal cliffs between Porto Mosquito and Baia do Inferno
Cape Verde Rabo de Junco Islet Natural Reserve Reserva
Cape Verde Branco Islet Integral Natural Reserve
Cape Verde Raso Islet Integral Natural Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success
Pollution Excess energy - Light pollution Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Puffinus lherminieri. Downloaded from on 27/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/11/2022.