Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii


Arcos, J.M. and Oro, D. 1996. Changes in foraging range of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii in relation to a trawler moratorium in the western Mediterranean. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 128-131.

Barov, B.; Derhé, M.A. 2011. Review of the implementation of species action plans for threatened birds in the European Union 2004-2010. Final report. BirdLife International for the European Commission.

Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261.

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

BirdLife International. In prep. European Red List of Birds. Deliverable to the European Commission (DG Environment) in 2021 under Service Contract ENV.D.3/SER/2018/0018.

Calado, J. G., Matos, D. M., Ramos, J. A., Moniz, F., Ceia, F. R., Granadeiro, J.P. & Paiva, V. H. 2018. Seasonal and annual differences in the foraging ecology of two gull species breeding in sympatry and their use of fishery discards. Journal of Avian Biology, 49(1). 49(1): e01463.

Cantaloube, E. 2014. Spanish landmark legislation increases 20-fold marine protected areas. BirdLife International. Available at:

Cramp, S.; Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol. III: waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Criado, J. Ed. 1997. Revision of the International Action Plan for the Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fric, J. 2014.  Concrete Conservation Actions for the Mediterranean Shag and Audouin's gull in Greece including the inventory of relevant marine IBAs LIFE07 NAT/GR/000285. Available at:

García-Tarrasón, M., Bécares, J., Bateman, S., Arcos, J.M., Jover, L. and Sanpera, C. 2015. Sex-specific foraging behavior in response to fishing activities in a threatened seabird. Ecology and Evolution 5(12): 2348–2358.

Genovart, M., Oro, D. & Tenan, S. 2018. Immature survival, fertility and density dependence drive global population dynamics in a long‐lived species. Ecology 99: 2823-2832.

Gutiérrez, R.; Guinart, E. 2008. The Ebro Delta Audouin's Gull colony and vagrancy potential to northwest Europe. British Birds 101(8): 443-447.

Hoogendoorm, W. and Mackrill, E.J. 1987. Audouin's gull in southwestern Palearctic. Dutch Birding 9(4): 99-107.

IUCN. 2020. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2020-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2020).

Jones, H.P.; Tershy, B.R.; Zavaleta, E.S.; Croll, D.A.; Keitt, B.S.; Finkelstein, M.E.; Howald, G.R. 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conservation Biology 22(1): 16-26.

Lambertini, M. 1996. International action plan for Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 289-301. Council of Europe and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.

Laneri, K.; Louzao, M.; Martínez-Abraín, A.; Arcos, J.M.; Belda, E.J.; Guallart, J.; Sánchez, A.; Giménez, M.; Maestre, R.; Oro, D. 2010. Trawling regime influences longline seabird bycatch in the Mediterranean: new insights from a small-scale fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series 420: 241–252.

Mañosa, S.; Oro, D.; Ruiz, X. 2004. Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls at the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. Scientia Marina 68: 605-614.

Martínez-Abraín, A., González-Solis, J., Pedrocchi, V., Genovart, M., Abella, J.C., Ruiz, X., Jiménez, J. and Oro, D. 2003. Kleptoparasitism, disturbance and predation of yellow-legged gulls on Audouin's gulls in three colonies of the western Mediterranean. Scientia Marina 67(2): 89-94.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Onmus, O. 2006. Current status of the Audouin's gull Larus audouinii Eastern Population.

Oro, D.; Cam, E.; Pradel, R.; Martínez-Abrain, A. 2004. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271: 387-396.

Oro, D.; Pérez-Rodríguez, A; Martínez-Vilalta, A.; Bertolero, A.; Vidal, F.; Genovart, M. 2009. Interference competition in a threatened seabird community: A paradox for a successful conservation. Biological Conservation 142(8): 1830-1835.

Oro, D.; Pradel, R. 2000. Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 119-132.

Oro, D.; Pradel, R.; Lebreton, J.-D. 1999. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii. Oecologia 118: 438-445.

Paracuellos, M.; Nevado, J. C. 2010. Culling Yellow-legged Gulls Larus michahellis benefits Audouin's Gulls Larus audouinii at a small and remote colony. Bird Study 57(1): 26-30.

Payo-Payo, A., Sanz-Aguilar, A., Genovart, M., Bertolero, A., Piccardo, J., Camps, D., Ruiz-Olmo, J. & Oro, D. 2018. Predator arrival elicits differential dispersal, change in age structure and reproductive performance in a prey population. Scientific Reports 8: 1-7.

Pedrocchi, V. Oro, D., Gonzalez-Solis, J., Ruiz, X., Jover, L. 2002. Differences in diet between the two largest breeding colonies of Andouin's gulls: the effects of fishery activities. Scientia Marina 66(3): 313-320.

Sanpera, C.; Ruiz, X.; Moreno, R.; Jover, L.; Waldron, S. 2007. Mercury and stable isotopes in feathers of Audouin's Gulls as indicators of feeding habits and migratory connectivity. Condor 109(2): 268-275.

Tavecchia, G., Pradel, R., Genovart, M., Oro, D., 2007. Density-dependent parameters and demographic equilibrium in open populations. Oikos 116: 1481–1492.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

International Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023.