Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii


Arcos, J.M. and Oro, D. 1996. Changes in foraging range of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii in relation to a trawler moratorium in the western Mediterranean. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 128-131.

BirdLife International. 2004. Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Cantaloube, E. 2014. Spanish landmark legislation increases 20-fold marine protected areas. BirdLife International. Available at:

Cramp, S.; Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol. III: waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Criado, J. Ed. 1997. Revision of the International Action Plan for the Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fric, J. 2014.  Concrete Conservation Actions for the Mediterranean Shag and Audouin's gull in Greece including the inventory of relevant marine IBAs LIFE07 NAT/GR/000285. Available at:

García-Tarrasón, M., Bécares, J., Bateman, S., Arcos, J.M., Jover, L. and Sanpera, C. 2015. Sex-specific foraging behavior in response to fishing activities in a threatened seabird. Ecology and Evolution 5(12): 2348–2358.

Hoogendoorm, W. and Mackrill, E.J. 1987. Audouin's gull in southwestern Palearctic. Dutch Birding 9(4): 99-107.

Jones, H.P.; Tershy, B.R.; Zavaleta, E.S.; Croll, D.A.; Keitt, B.S.; Finkelstein, M.E.; Howald, G.R. 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conservation Biology 22(1): 16-26.

Lambertini, M. 1996. International action plan for Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 289-301. Council of Europe and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.

Laneri, K.; Louzao, M.; Martínez-Abraín, A.; Arcos, J.M.; Belda, E.J.; Guallart, J.; Sánchez, A.; Giménez, M.; Maestre, R.; Oro, D. 2010. Trawling regime influences longline seabird bycatch in the Mediterranean: new insights from a small-scale fishery. Marine Ecology Progress Series 420: 241–252.

Mañosa, S.; Oro, D.; Ruiz, X. 2004. Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls at the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. Scientia Marina 68: 605-614.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Onmus, O. 2006. Current status of the Audouin's gull Larus audouinii Eastern Population.

Oro, D.; Cam, E.; Pradel, R.; Martínez-Abrain, A. 2004. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271: 387-396.

Oro, D.; Pradel, R. 2000. Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 119-132.

Oro, D.; Pradel, R.; Lebreton, J.-D. 1999. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii. Oecologia 118: 438-445.

Pedrocchi, V. Oro, D., Gonzalez-Solis, J., Ruiz, X., Jover, L. 2002. Differences in diet between the two largest breeding colonies of Andouin's gulls: the effects of fishery activities. Scientia Marina 66(3): 313-320.

Sanpera, C.; Ruiz, X.; Moreno, R.; Jover, L.; Waldron, S. 2007. Mercury and stable isotopes in feathers of Audouin's Gulls as indicators of feeding habits and migratory connectivity. Condor 109(2): 268-275.

Tavecchia, G., Pradel, R., Genovart, M., Oro, D., 2007. Density-dependent parameters and demographic equilibrium in open populations. Oikos 116: 1481–1492.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Action Plan

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from on 28/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/10/2020.