Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii


Arcos, J. M.; Louzao, M.; Oro, D. 2008. Fishery ccosystem impacts and management in the Mediterranean: seabirds point of view. In: Nielsen, J.; Dodson, J.; Friedland, K.; Hamon, T.; Hughes, N.; Musick, J.; Verspoor, E. (ed.), Proceedings of the Fourth World Fisheries Congress: Reconciling Fisheries with Conservation, pp. 587-596. American Fisheries Society, Symposium 49, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Arcos, J. M.; Ruiz, X.; Bearhop, S.; Furness, R. W. 2002. Mercury levels in seabirds and their fish prey at the Ebro Delta (NW Mediterranean): the role of trawler discards as a source of contamination. Marine Ecology Progress Series 232: 281-290.

Arcos, J.M. and Oro, D. 1996. Changes in foraging range of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii in relation to a trawler moratorium in the western Mediterranean. Colonial Waterbirds 19: 128-131.

Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. 2011. Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii species action plan implementation review. In: Barov, B and Derhé, M. A. (eds), Review of The Implementation Of Species Action Plans for Threatened Birds in the European Union 2004-2010. Final report. BirdLife International For the European Commission.

Belda, E. J.; Sanchez, A. 2001. Seabird mortality on longline fisheries in the western mediterranean: factors affecting bycatch and proposed mitigating measures. Biological Conservation 98: 357-363.

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Bonaccorsi, G. 2003. Le Goéland D'audouin Larus audouinii dans le Golfe D'ajaccio: approche éthologique et écologique de 1980 à 2002. Alauda 71: 84-87.

Cantaloube, E. 2014. Spanish landmark legislation increases 20-fold marine protected areas. BirdLife International. Available at:

Charalambidou, I.; Gücel, S. 2008. First survey of Audouin's Gull, Larus audouinii (Payraudeau, 1826), colonies at Kleidhes Islands, Cyprus. Zoology in the Middle East 45: 29-34.

Cooper, J.; Baccetti, N.; Belda, E. J.; Borg, J. J.; Oro, D.; Papaconstantinou, C.; Sánchez, A. 2003. Seabird mortality from longline fishing in the Mediterranean Sea and Macaronesian waters: a review and a way forward. Scientia Marina 67: 57-64.

Cramp, S.; Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol. III: waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Criado, J. Ed. 1997. Revision of the International Action Plan for the Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., and Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Fric, J. 2014.  Concrete Conservation Actions for the Mediterranean Shag and Audouin's gull in Greece including the inventory of relevant marine IBAs LIFE07 NAT/GR/000285. Available at:

Genovart, M.; Oro, D.; Bonhomme, F. 2003. Genetic and morphological differentiation between the two largest breeding colonies of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii. Ibis 145: 448-456.

Hoogendoorm, W. and Mackrill, E.J. 1987. Audouin's gull in southwestern Palearctic. Dutch Birding 9(4): 99-107.

Jones, H.P.; Tershy, B.R.; Zavaleta, E.S.; Croll, D.A.; Keitt, B.S.; Finkelstein, M.E.; Howald, G.R. 2008. Severity of the effects of invasive rats on seabirds: a global review. Conservation Biology 22(1): 16-26.

Lambertini, M. 1996. International action plan for Audouin's Gull (Larus audouinii). In: Heredia, B.; Rose, L.; Painter, M. (ed.), Globally threatened birds in Europe: action plans, pp. 289-301. Council of Europe and BirdLife International, Strasbourg.

Mañosa, S.; Oro, D.; Ruiz, X. 2004. Activity patterns and foraging behaviour of Audouin’s gulls at the Ebro Delta, NW Mediterranean. Scientia Marina 68: 605-614.

Martínez-Abraín, A., Oro, D., Forero, M. G. & Conesa, D. 2003. Modeling temporal and spatial colony-site dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Population Ecology 45: 133-139.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2004. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Onmus, O. 2006. Current status of the Audouin's gull Larus audouinii Eastern Population.

Oro, D. 1996. Are migrating peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus a threat to breeding Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii at the Ebro Delta? Colonial Waterbirds 19: 270-272.

Oro, D. 1997. Montpellier Snakes Malpolon monspessulanus as predators of Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii chicks. Butlletí del Grup Català d'Anellament 14: 65-67.

Oro, D.; Baccetti, N.; Boukhalfa, D.; Eken, G.; El Hili, A.; Goutner, V.; Karauz, S.; Papaconstantinou, C.; Recorbet, B.; Ruiz, X. 2000. Current breeding distribution and status of Audouin's gulls Larus audouinii in the Mediterranean. In: Sultana, J.; Yésou, P. (ed.), Monitoring and Conservation of Birds, Mammals and Sea Turtles of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, pp. 69-80. BirdLife Malta.

Oro, D.; Cam, E.; Pradel, R.; Martínez-Abrain, A. 2004. Influence of food availability on demography and local population dynamics in a long-lived seabird. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271: 387-396.

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Oro, D.; Pradel, R. 2000. Determinants of local recruitment in a growing colony of Audouin's gull. Journal of Animal Ecology 69: 119-132.

Oro, D.; Pradel, R.; Lebreton, J.-D. 1999. Food availability and nest predation influence life history traits in Audouin's gull, Larus audouinii. Oecologia 118: 438-445.

Oro, D.; Ruxton, G. D. 2001. The formation and growth of seabird colonies: Audouin's gull as a case study. Journal of Animal Ecology 70: 527-535.

Pedrocchi, V. Oro, D., Gonzalez-Solis, J., Ruiz, X., Jover, L. 2002. Differences in diet between the two largest breeding colonies of Andouin's gulls: the effects of fishery activities. Scientia Marina 66(3): 313-320.

Recorbet, B.; Le Dru, A. 2002. Le Goéland d'Audouin Larus audouinii à Aspretto-Ajaccio (Corse): gestion pour une pérennisation de l'espèce sur un site artificiel. Alauda 70: 483-488.

Rubinic, B.; Vrezec, A. 2001. Audouin's Gull Larus audouinii, a new breeding gull species in the Adriatic sea (Croatia). Acrocephalus 21: 219-222.

Sanpera, C.; Ruiz, X.; Moreno, R.; Jover, L.; Waldron, S. 2007. Mercury and stable isotopes in feathers of Audouin's Gulls as indicators of feeding habits and migratory connectivity. Condor 109(2): 268-275.

Sériot, J. 1996-1998. Following numbers of rare and endangered breeding birds in France 1995, 1996 and 1997.

Tavecchia, G., Pradel, R., Genovart, M., Oro, D., 2007. Density-dependent parameters and demographic equilibrium in open populations. Oikos 116: 1481–1492.

Travichon, S. 2004. Cycle de reproduction du Goéland d'Audouin Larus audouinii sur un site artificiel en Corse (France). Alauda 72: 227-233.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

International Action Plan

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources
Arkive species - Audouin’s gull (Larus audouinii)

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Larus audouinii. Downloaded from on 22/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/09/2018.