VU
Atlantic Puffin Fratercula arctica



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4abcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A4abcde
2015 Vulnerable A4abcde
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 37,900,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 21.6 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated to be 4,770,000-5,780,000 pairs, which equates to 9,550,000-11,600,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The population size in Europe is estimated and projected to decrease by 50-79% during 2000-2065 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015). Europe holds >90% of the global population, so the projected declines in Europe are globally significant. The overall trend of the West Atlantic population is unknown (Berglund and Hentati-Sundberg 2014). Populations are suspected to be declining rapidly through the combined impact of predation by invasive species, pollution, food shortages caused by the depletion of fisheries and adult mortality in fishing nets.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant
Austria V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes
Croatia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia U Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Latvia U Extant
Lithuania U Extant
Malta V Extant
Monaco U Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia V Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
Tunisia N Extant
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Western Sahara U Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Baccalieu Island
Canada Baie de Brador
Canada Gannet Islands
Canada Wadham Islands and adjacent Marine Area
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Koltur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Lítla Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Stóra Dímun
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Gibraltar (to UK) Strait of Gibraltar
Greenland (to Denmark) Assissut (Braendvinsskaerene) near Kronprinsens Ejland
Greenland (to Denmark) Islands and waters south and west of Upernavik town
Greenland (to Denmark) Islands west and north-west of Simiuttat and south of Qilangarsuit
Greenland (to Denmark) Nunatsiaq (Rotten)
Greenland (to Denmark) Qilangaarsuit and adjacent islands
Iceland Akurey Faxafloa
Iceland Álftanes-Akrar
Iceland Andridsey
Iceland Bangastadahöfn
Iceland Bjarnarey, Vopnafirði
Iceland Borgarey, Isafjardardjupi
Iceland Drangey
Iceland Flatey, Skjálfanda
Iceland Grímsey, Eyjafirdi
Iceland Grimsey, Steingrimsfirði
Iceland Látrabjarg
Iceland Lundey Kollafirdi
Iceland Lundey, Skagafjordur
Iceland Lundey, Skjalfandafloa
Iceland Malmey, Skagafjordur
Iceland Manareyjar
Iceland Papey
Iceland Skrúdur
Iceland Vestmannaeyjar
Iceland Vigur, Isafjardardjupi
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Cliffs of Moher
Ireland Illaunmaistir (Oilean Maistir)
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig
Norway Anda
Norway Bleiksøy
Norway Gjesværstappan
Norway Hjelmsøy
Norway Lille Kamøya & Bondøya
Norway Loppa
Norway Lovunden
Norway Nord-Fugløy
Norway Nykvåg
Norway Røst
Norway Runde
Norway Sør-Fugløy
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Norway Værøy
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Russia (European) Seven islands
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Kvalhovden & Sjukovskifjella
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Sassen-Bünsow Land
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subarctic major breeding
Grassland Temperate major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Rapid Declines Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Rapid Declines Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species disturbance, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Unknown Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Fratercula arctica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2017.