NT
Asian Woollyneck Ciconia episcopus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Ciconia episcopus and C. microscelis (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. episcopus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2014 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 2061 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000-249999 poor suspected 2019
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9.2 - - -

Population justification: The population was previously estimated to number up to 35,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2014). However, the South Asian population alone was recently estimated to number 120,000-310,000 individuals (based on density estimates over multi-scale, multi-year surveys; G. Sundar in litt. 2019, 2020). This roughly converts to 80,000-210,000 mature individuals. Given that the South Asian population comprises the most significant range of the species in comparison to the South-East Asian range (F. Goes in litt. 2020), precautionarily using recent estimates as a proxy for the global population, the overall population size is considered to number 50,000-249,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: There has been substantial declines in South-East Asia in recent years (J. W. Duckworth in litt. 2013, R. J. Timmins in litt. 2013, F. Goes in litt. 2014), with populations in South Asia appearing to be stable, albeit with inter-annual fluctuations (Praveen J. in litt. 2014, S. Subramanya in litt. 2014, G. Sundar in litt. 2020), whilst other populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2014). Across India alone, the species is considered to have been stable in the long-term (measured as the change in index of abundance from 2014-2015, relative to pre-2000's), with a moderate decline recorded in the short-term, equating to an annual change of 6.18% decline (as observed between 2014/2015 and 2018/2019; State of India's Birds 2020, Praveen J. in litt. 2020). It is also important to consider that the South-East Asian population equates to only c. 10% or below of the overall population, with quantifiable information lacking across this range (G. Sundar in litt. 2020, F. Goes in litt. 2020). Thus, given that the majority of the population across South Asia is stable (subject to some fluctuations), but not discounting for regional reductions across South-East Asia and increased species's rarity across this range, the population is suspected to be undergoing a slower decline at a rate of 20-29% over three generations (27.6 years; Bird et al. 2020).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) V Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of V Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Philippines N Possibly Extinct Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Thailand Khao Ang Ru Nai
India Guru Ghasidas Tiger Reserve
India Dighal wetland
India Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary
India Megamalai Mountains
India Melagiris
India Pilibhit Tiger Reserve
India Ujjani Reservoir
India Jawai Dam Leopard Conservation Reserve
India Badopal Lake
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Mahendri Reserve Forest
India Hatnur Dam
India Sirpur Lake
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
India Pawalgarh Conservation Reserve
India Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve
India Nandhour Wildlife Sanctuary
India Topchanchi Wildlife Sanctuary
India Navelim wetland
India Keshopur Miani (or Chhamb) Community Reserve
India Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary
India Chandoli National Park
India Hesaraghatta Lake
India Hoskote Kere
India Thippagondanahalli Reservoir
India Tungabhadra Reservoir
India Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land suitable resident
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major resident
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Ciconia episcopus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/01/2022.