Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii


Aghanajafizadeh, S.; Hemami, M. R.; Heydari, F. 2011. Relationship between Food Resources and Brooding Site by Asiatic Houbara (Chlamydotis macqueenii) in Central Steppe of Iran. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 53: 558–560.

Aghanajafizadeh, S.; Hemami, M. R.; Heydari, F. 2012. Nest-site selection by the Asian Houbara Bustard, Chlamydotis macqueenii, in the steppe of Harat, Iran. Zoology in the Middle East 57(1): 11-18.

Aghanajafizadeh, S.; Hemami, M.R.; Karami, M.; Dolman, P. M. 2010. Wintering habitat use by houbara bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) in steppes of Harat, central Iran. Journal of Arid Environments 74: 912-917.

BirdLife International. 2014. Review of the global conservation status of the Asian Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii - Report by BirdLife International to the Convention on Migratory Species Office - Abu Dhabi. BirdLife International.

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Burnside, R.J., Collar, N.J., Koshkin, M.A. and Dolman, P.M. 2015. Avian powerline mortalities, including Asian Houbaras Chlamydotis macqueenii, on the Central Asian flyway in Uzbekistan. Sandgrouse 37: 161-168.

Burnside, R.J., Collar, N.J., Scotland, K.M. and Dolman, P.M. 2016. Survival rates of captive-bred Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii in a hunted migratory population. Ibis 158(2): 353-361.

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Combreau, O. 2007. Arabic falconry and the illegal Houbara trade in Arabia. Falco: 16-17.

Combreau, O.; Launay, F. 1996. Activity rhythms of houbara bustards (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) in relation to some abiotic factors. Journal of Arid Environments 33: 463-472.

Combreau, O.; Launay, F.; Lawerence, M. 2001. An assessment of annual mortality rates in adult sized migrant houbara bustards (Chlamydotis [undulata] macqueenii. Animal Conservation 4(2): 133-141.

Combreau, O.; Qiao, J.; Lawerence, M.; Gao, X.; Yao, J.; Yang, W.; Launay, F. 2002. Breeding success in a Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis [undulata] macqueenii population on the eastern fringe of the Jungar Basin, People's Republic of China. Ibis 144: E45-E56.

Combreau, O.; Smith, T. R. 1997. Summer habitat selection by houbara bustards introduced in central Saudi Arabia. Journal of Arid Environments 36: 149-160.

Gaucher, P.; Paillat, P.; Chappuis, C.; Saint Jalme, M.; Lotfikhah, F.; Wink, M. 1996. Taxonomy of the Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata subspecies considered on the basis of sexual display and genetic divergence. Ibis 138: 273-282.

Goriup, P. 1997. The world status of the Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata. Bird Conservation International 7: 373-397.

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IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Judas, J.; Lawrence, M.; Combreau, O. 2009. High mortality of Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii in Iran. Falco: 14-15.

Knox, A.G., Collinson, M., Helbig, A.J., Parkin, D.T. and Sangster,G. 2002. Taxonomic recommendations for British birds. Ibis 144: 707-710.

Koshkin, M. A.; Collar, N. J.; Dolman, P. M. 2014. Do sheep affect distribution and habitat of Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii? Journal of Arid Environments 103: 53-62.

Koshkin, M.A., Burnside, R.J., Collar, N.J., Guilherme, J.L., Showler, D.A. and Dolman, P.M. 2016a. Effects of habitat and land-use on breeding-season density of male Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii. Journal of Ornithology 157(3): 811-823.

Koshkin, M.A., Burnside, R.J., Packman, C.E., Collar, N.J., Dolman, P.M. 2016b. Effects of habitat and livestock on nest productivity of the Asian houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii in Bukhara Province, Uzbekistan. Journal of Wildlife Research 62(4): 447-459.

Launay, F.; Roshier, D.; Loughland, R.; Aspinall, S. J. 1997. Habitat use by houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii) in arid shrubland in the United Arab Emirates. Journal of Arid Environments 35(1): 111–121.

Lavee, D. 1988. Why is the Houbara Chlamydotis undulata macqueenii still an endangered species in Israel? Biological Conservation 45(1): 47–54.

Lesobre, L.; Lacroix, F.; Le Nuz, E.; Hingrat, Y.; Chalah, T.; Saint Jaime, M. 2010. Absence of male reproductive skew, along with high frequency of polyandry and conspecific brood parasitism in the lekking Houbara bustard Chlamydotis undulata undulata. Journal of Avian Biology 41(2): 117-127.

Mansoori, J. 2006. Status of Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis undulata in five important habitats in Iran. Podoces 1(1/2): 17-20.

Mian, A. 2003. On biology of houbara bustard (Chlamydotis macqueenii) in Balochistan, Pakistan: animal populations sharing habitat. Pakistan Journal of Biological Science 6(14): 1282-1295.

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Riou, S.; Judas, J.; Lawrence, M.; Pole, S.; Combreau, O. 2011. A 10-year assessment of Asian Houbara Bustard populations: trends in Kazakhstan reveal important regional differences. Bird Conservation International 21: 134–141.

Sangster, G. 1996. Trends in systematics: taxonomy of Houbara and Macqueen's Bustards and neglest of intraspecific diversity. Dutch Birding 18: 248-256.

Sangster, G.; Hazevoet, C. J.; Van den Berg, A. B.; Roselaar, C. S.; Sluys, R. 1999. Dutch avifaunal list: species concepts, taxonomic instability, and taxonomic changes in 1977-1998. Ardea 87: 139-165.

Shafaeipour, A., Mousavi, S. B. and Fathinia, B. 2015. Falcon and bustard smuggling in Iran. Falco 45(Spring): 5-7.

Sibley, C.G.; Monroe, B.L. 1990. Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Sibley, C.G.; Monroe, B.L. 1993. A supplement to 'Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World'. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Tigar, B. J.; Osborne, P. E. 2000. Invertebrate diet of the Houbara Bustard Chamydotis [undulata] macqueenii in Abu Dhabi from calibrated faecal analysis. Ibis 142(3): 466-475.

Tourenq, C.; Combreau, O.; Eichaker, X.; Xinyi, G. 2003. Predation of ground-nesting birds by Asian Houbara Bustard (Chlamydotis [undulata] macqueenii). Journal of Arid Environments 55(3): 581-582.

Tourenq, C.; Combreau, O.; Lawrence, M.; Pole, S. B.; Spalton, A.; Gao, X.J., et al. 2005. Alarming houbara bustard population trends in Asia. Biological Conservation 121: 1-8.

Tourenq, C.; Combreau, O.; Pole, S. B.; Lawerence, M.; Ageyev, V.S.; Karpov, A. A.; Launay, F. 2004. Monitoring of Asian houbara bustard Chlamydotis macqueenii populations in Kazakhstan reveals dramatic decline. Oryx 38: 62-67.

Yang, W.-K.; Qiao, J.-F.; Combreau, O.; Gao, X.-Y.; Zhong, W.-Q. 2003. Breeding habitat selection by the Houbara Bustard Chlamydotis [undulata] macqueenii in Mori, Xinjiang, China. Zoological Studies 42(3): 470-475.

Zafar-ul Islam, M., Boug, A., Alshariri, S. and Alsubai, H. 2014. Houbara Bustard movement between Saudi Arabia and Kazakhstan. Phoenix 30(4).

Further resources

IUCN SSC Bustard Specialist Group

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chlamydotis macqueenii. Downloaded from on 04/03/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/03/2021.