VU
Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Chlamydotis undulata and C. macqueenii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. undulata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).  

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Vulnerable A4acd
2016 Vulnerable A4acd
2014 Vulnerable A4acd
2012 Not Recognised
2010 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 8,940,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 33000-67000 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: The population has recently been estimated at between 78,960 and 97,000 individuals globally (O. Combreau in litt. 2014, BirdLife International 2014). It must be emphasised, however, that accurately establishing the global population is extremely challenging, and this figure should be treated as a tentative best estimate. The population is therefore expected to fall within the population band for 50,000-99,999 individuals, which is assumed to equate to c.33,000-67,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Since 1998, biannual surveys have been carried out in southern Kazakhstan (Tourenq et al. 2004, 2005, Riou et al. 2011), which holds over 50% of the global population. The initial published analysis of the first four years of data (1998-2002) suggested alarming declines across all regions surveyed (Tourenq et al. 2004, 2005). Subsequent assessment of 10 years of survey data from 2000 to 2009 by Riou et al. (2011) confirmed on-going declines in some regions, but also suggested stabilising and even increasing populations in others. Overall, the population in Kazakhstan is estimated to have declined by 26-36% between 2000 and 2009 (Riou et al. 2011). Anecdotal evidence indicates that there have been recent declines in Iran (R. Ayé in litt. 2013), and that hunting pressure has been very high in Iraq (R. Porter in litt. 2013) and Pakistan (S. Khan in litt. 2013) in recent years. Based on these data and observations, the population is estimated and projected to be declining by 30-49% over a three-generation (20-year) window, stretching from the past into the future.



Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extinct Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates R Extant Yes Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Afghanistan North-western steppe
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Afghanistan Registan desert
Iraq Tharthar Lake and Al-Dhebaeji Fields
Iraq Samara Wetlands
Iraq Abu Dalaf and Shari lake
Iraq Attariya Plains
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Dalmaj Marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kavir region
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tayebad plains at Ghoomi and Sarhad
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sahlabad area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kalmand Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kaftar lake
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hormod Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahram-e-Gour Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mehrouyeh Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Bazman
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Gabi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Taftan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Israel Western Negev
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Jordan Burqu'
Jordan Azraq
Jordan Shaumari
Jordan Madaba - Hisban
Jordan Dana
Jordan Wadi Araba
Kuwait Al-Batin Park
Oman Masirah island
Oman Jiddat al Harasis
Oman Khor Dirif
Saudi Arabia Harrat al-Harrah
Saudi Arabia Al-Hasa lagoons
Saudi Arabia Hawtat Bani Tamim
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Syria Tual al-'Abba
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Syria Buhayrat al-Khatuniyah
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Syria Euphrates valley
Syria Wadi al-Azib
Syria Jabal al-Bishri
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Jabal Sis
United Arab Emirates Digdaga - Hamraniyah
United Arab Emirates Al Houbara
Yemen Al-Murah
Yemen The wooded Mahra
Yemen Desert west of Al-Ghayda
China (mainland) Burgen River Valley
China (mainland) Baytik Shan
China (mainland) Ebi Nur and Kuytun River
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
Mongolia Achit Lake
Mongolia Boon Tsagaan Lake
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
India Desert National Park
Iraq Wadi Al-W’eir & Sh'eeb Abu-Talha
Turkmenistan Ersarybaba - Akkyr
Turkmenistan Tallymerjen
Kazakhstan Zhusandala
Kazakhstan Arys-Karaktau State Reserved Zone
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Uzbekistan The desert around Kurkuduk village
Uzbekistan Saiga Nature Sanctuary
Uzbekistan Rogatoe Lake
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Karakyr Lakes
Uzbekistan Dzheiran Ecocentre
Uzbekistan Tuzkan Lake
Uzbekistan Karnabchul Steppe
Turkmenistan Goyungyrlan
Turkmenistan Repetek
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Tajikistan Kayrakkum Reservoir
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Sarysu River
Kazakhstan Telikol Lakes
Turkmenistan Tejen
Turkmenistan Garashor
Turkmenistan Badhyz
Turkmenistan Garachop
Turkmenistan Garabil
Uzbekistan Buzaubay
Uzbekistan Kattakurgan Reservoir
Uzbekistan Northern part of the Assake-Audan depression
Kazakhstan Zhagabulak Forest
Uzbekistan Northern shore of Aydarkul Lake
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Mongolia Borzon Gobi
Mongolia Galba Gobi
Mongolia Khasagt Khairkhan Mountain
Uzbekistan Ayakaghytma lake and surrounding desert
Uzbekistan Sarykamysh lake and surrounding Ustyurt Plateau
Iraq Jazman (Zurbatia)
Iraq Salman
Iraq Sawa Lake and Area
Iraq Hoshiya and Saaroot
Iraq Suwaibaat (Sleibaat)
Iraq Teeb Oasis and Zubaidaat
Iraq Teab Seasonal Wetlands
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
Uzbekistan Khodzha-Davlet
United Arab Emirates Dubai Desert (Nazwa Mountain)
Kazakhstan Karabas Mountains
Kazakhstan Arkaly Mountains
Turkmenistan Chokrak-Tutly
Turkmenistan Sarygamysh
Turkmenistan Akjagaya
Turkmenistan Uzboy
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot major breeding
Desert Hot major non-breeding
Desert Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Chlamydotis macqueenii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/06/2020.