VU
Asian Houbara Chlamydotis macqueenii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Chlamydotis undulata and C. macqueenii (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. undulata following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).  

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A4acd
2014 Vulnerable A4acd
2012 Not Recognised
2010 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,920,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 16,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 33000-67000 medium estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification: The population has recently been estimated at between 78,960 and 97,000 individuals globally (O. Combreau in litt. 2014, BirdLife International 2014). It must be emphasised, however, that accurately establishing the global population is extremely challenging, and this figure should be treated as a tentative best estimate. The population is therefore expected to fall within the population band for 50,000-99,999 individuals, which is assumed to equate to c.33,000-67,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Since 1998, biannual surveys have been carried out in southern Kazakhstan (Tourenq et al. 2004, 2005, Riou et al. 2011), which holds over 50% of the global population. The initial published analysis of the first four years of data (1998-2002) suggested alarming declines across all regions surveyed (Tourenq et al. 2004, 2005). Subsequent assessment of 10 years of survey data from 2000 to 2009 by Riou et al. (2011) confirmed on-going declines in some regions, but also suggested stabilising and even increasing populations in others. Overall, the population in Kazakhstan is estimated to have declined by 26-36% between 2000 and 2009 (Riou et al. 2011). Anecdotal evidence indicates that there have been recent declines in Iran (R. Ayé in litt. 2013), and that hunting pressure has been very high in Iraq (R. Porter in litt. 2013) and Pakistan (S. Khan in litt. 2013) in recent years. Based on these data and observations, the population is estimated and projected to be declining by 30-49% over a three-generation (20-year) window, stretching from the past into the future.



Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Austria V Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium V Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark V Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Finland V Extant
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greece V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Nepal V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania V Extant
Russia V Extant
Russia (Asian) V Extant
Russia (Central Asian) V Extant
Russia (European) V Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Sudan V Extant
Sweden V Extant
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extinct Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes Yes
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
United Arab Emirates Al Houbara
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
United Arab Emirates Dubai Desert (Nazwa Mountain)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot major breeding
Desert Hot major non-breeding
Desert Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance War, civil unrest & military exercises Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of ground water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Chlamydotis macqueenii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/10/2019.