Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

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Gochfeld, M.; Burger, J.; de Juana, E.; Garcia, E.F.J. 2014. Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

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Schreiber, J.; Kissling, W.D. 2005. Factors affecting the breeding success of Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea in a colony at Kaldbaksbotnur, Faroe Islands. Atlantic Seabirds 7(3): 97-105.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Vigfusdottir, F. 2012. Drivers of productivity in a subarctic seabird: Arctic Terns in Iceland. University of East Anglia.

Vigfusdottir, F.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Gill, J.A. 2013. Annual and between-colony variation in productivity of Arctic Terns in West Iceland. Bird Study 60(3): 289-297.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Sterna paradisaea. Downloaded from on 01/12/2023.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/12/2023.