LC
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea



References

BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Buckley, P. A.; Buckley, F. G. 1984. Seabirds of the north and middle Atlantic coasts of the United States: their status and conservation. In: Croxall, J.P.; Evans, P.G.H.; Schreiber, R.W. (ed.), Status and conservation of the world's seabirds, pp. 101-133. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Daunt, F.; Mitchell, I. 2013. Impacts of climate change on seabirds. MCCIP Science Review: 125-133.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Frederiksen, M.; Anker‐Nilssen, T.; Beaugrand, G.; Wanless, S. 2013. Climate, copepods and seabirds in the boreal northeast Atlantic – Current state and future outlook. Global Change Biology 19(2): 364-372.

Gilchrist, H.; Robertson, G. 1999. Population trends of gulls and Arctic Tems nesting in the Belcher Islands, Nunavut. Arctic 52(4): 325-331.

Gochfeld, M.; Burger, J.; de Juana, E.; Garcia, E.F.J. 2014. Arctic Tern (Sterna paradisaea). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A.; de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Griswold, C. 2016. Tragedy at Arctic Tern colony (blog post). Available at: http://sporadicbird.blogspot.com/2016/06/june-3-2016-tragedy-at-arctic-tern.html.

Higgins, P.J.; Davies, S.J.J.F. 1996. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds Vol. 3: Snipe to Pigeons. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mavor, R.A.; Parsons, M.; Heubeck, M.; Schmitt. S. 2006. Seabird numbers and breeding success in Britain and Ireland, 2005. Joint Nature Conservation Committee, UK Nature Conservation, Peterborough.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Nordström, M.; Högmander, J.; Nummelin, J.; Laine, J.; Laanetu, N.; Korpimäki, E. 2003. Effects of feral mink removal on seabirds, waders and passerines on small islands in the Baltic Sea. Biological Conservation 109: 359-368.

Nordström, M.; Laine, J.; Ahola, M.; Korpimäki, E. 2004. Reduced nest defence intensity and improved breeding success in terns as responses to removal of non-native American mink. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 55: 454-460.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Schreiber, J.; Kissling, W.D. 2005. Factors affecting the breeding success of Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea in a colony at Kaldbaksbotnur, Faroe Islands. Atlantic Seabirds 7(3): 97-105.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Vigfusdottir, F. 2012. Drivers of productivity in a subarctic seabird: Arctic Terns in Iceland. University of East Anglia.

Vigfusdottir, F.; Gunnarsson, T.G.; Gill, J.A. 2013. Annual and between-colony variation in productivity of Arctic Terns in West Iceland. Bird Study 60(3): 289-297.

Wetlands International. 2015. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: wpe.wetlands.org. (Accessed: 17/09/2015).

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos, videos and sounds of this species in the Internet Bird Collection.

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Sterna paradisaea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/05/2019.