LC
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2010 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,800,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 126,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.4 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number >2,000,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 564,000-906,000 pairs, which equates to 1,130,000-1,810,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). The population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 individuals on migration (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing (Wetlands International 2015). In Europe, the population size is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 40.2 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria V Extant
Angola N Extant
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bolivia N Extant
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Bulgaria V Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic V Extant
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Cyprus V Extant
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt V Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Southern Territories V Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant Yes
Guatemala U Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) U Extant
Hungary V Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Indonesia V Extant
Ireland N Extant Yes Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lesotho V Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Marshall Islands V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique V Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman V Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant
Peru N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Slovakia V Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Togo N Extant
Turkey V Extant
Ukraine V Extant
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uruguay V Extant
USA N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Assissut (Braendvinsskaerene) near Kronprinsens Ejland
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Suduroy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Sandoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Hestur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Koltur
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Nólsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Svínoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vidoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Bordoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kunoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Kalsoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Eysturoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Streymoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vágar
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Estonia Matsalu Bay
Estonia Kihnu strait
Estonia Relict lakes of southern Saaremaa
Iceland Hrísey
Ireland Broadhaven, Blacksod and Tullaghan Bays and parts of the Mullet peninsula
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Connemara Islands
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Carrowmore Lake
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishkeeragh and Illancrone
Ireland Inishbofin, Inisdooey and Inisbeg
Ireland Greer's Island (Massmount), Mulroy Bay
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Rockabill
Ireland Lady's Island Lake
Ireland Shannon and Fergus Estuaries
Ireland Aran Islands (parts)
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Dublin Bay
Belgium Zwin
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Dannskär – Örskär Islands
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Vistula river mouth
Netherlands Texel: Schorren and Zeeburg
Netherlands Griend
Netherlands Rottumerplaat
Netherlands Rottumeroog
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Finland Lågskär-Nyhamn
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Ruissalo
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Kevo
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Seven islands
Russia (European) Surroundings of Kiyesh'yaur lake
Russia (European) Solovetski Archipelago and Zjizjginski island
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Littoral Augeron
France Cap Gris-nez
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
United Kingdom Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell
United Kingdom Bridgend Flats, Islay
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Carlingford Lough
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Eden Estuary, Tentsmuir Point and Abertay Sands
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Farne Islands
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Laggan Peninsula
United Kingdom Larne Lough
United Kingdom Lindisfarne
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Lochs of Harray and Stenness
United Kingdom Machrihanish
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Colonsay and Western Cliffs
United Kingdom North Harris Mountains
United Kingdom North Norfolk Coast
United Kingdom Ronas Hill - North Roe and Tingon
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Northumbria Coast
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Outer Ards
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Sumburgh Head
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom West Burrafirth
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Ythan Estuary, Sands of Forvie and Meikle Loch
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Cuillins
United Kingdom North Sutherland Coastal Islands
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Loch Ryan
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom South Bressay
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Stornoway to Back, Lewis
United Kingdom West Coast, Lewis (Corncrake)
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Greenland (to Denmark) Booth Sund area
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Greenland (to Denmark) Henrik Krøyer Holme
Sweden Coastal area (including seaside meadows) of Eastern Öland
Sweden Bonden Island
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Roskilde Fjord, Selsø and Kattinge Søerne
Denmark Islands and coast between Skælskør Fjord and Glænø
Denmark Sejerø Bay and Nekselø
Denmark Præstø Fjord, Ulvshale, Nyord and Jungshoved Nor
Denmark Nakskov Fjord and Indrefjord
Denmark Islands in Smålandshavet, north of Lolland
Denmark Ulvsund, Grønsund, Farø Fjord and Fanefjord
Denmark Hyllekrog-Rødsand and Fehmarn Belt
Denmark Karrebæk, Dybsø and Avnø Fjords (coasts and islands)
Denmark Venø and Venø Sund
Denmark Lillebælt
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Glomstrup Vig, Agerø, Munkholm and Katholm Odde, Lindholm, and Rotholme
Denmark Parts of Randers and Mariager Fjords
Denmark South Læsø
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Coast from Aggersund to Bygholm Vejle
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Nærå Coast and Æbelø area
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Sydfynske Ø-hav
Denmark Horsens Fjord, Svanegrunden & Endelave
Denmark Stavnsfjord and adjacent waters
Denmark Dråby Vig and Buksør Odde
Denmark Mågerodde and Karby Odde
Denmark Agger Tange and Krik Vig
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Hirsholmene
Denmark Coast between Dokkedal and Lyngså
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Sklinna
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northwest Spitsbergen National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Forlandet National Park
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Denmark Nissum Bredning
Norway Varangerfjord
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Schlei
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Hamburg Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Heerter See
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Denmark Northwestern Kattegat
Denmark Smålandsfarvandet [DK130]
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Estonia Kolga bay
Estonia Pärnu bay (NEW)
Estonia Vaindloo island
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Väinameri
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of headwaters of the river Schuchya
Latvia Ovisi
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Randu meadows
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Rade de Lorient
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Basins of the Schuchya and Khadytayakha rivers
Canada Machias Seal Island
Canada Green Island
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Country Island Complex
Canada North Arm, Great Slave Lake
Canada Koktac River Archipelago
Canada North Belcher Islands
Canada Salikuit Islands
Canada Sleeper Islands
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Lac Deschênes
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada Lagune du Havre aux Basques et plage de l'Ouest
Canada Île Brion
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Île Nue de Mingan
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Canada Île a Calculot
Canada Nunaluk Spit to Herschel Island
Canada Blow River Delta (Shingle Point to Tent Island)
United Kingdom Sleibhtean Agus Chladach Thiriodh
United Kingdom Copeland Islands
United Kingdom Solent Marshes and Southampton Water
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Ireland Inishbofin and Inishshark (including Davillaun)
Denmark Guldborgsund
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Hjarbæk Fjord
Denmark Lovns Bredning
Denmark Lønnerup Fjord
Denmark Saltbæk Vig
Denmark Skælskør Nor, Skælskør Fjord and Borreby Mose
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Poland Szczecin lagoon
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Prince William Sound
Norway Froan
Norway Altaelvmunningen
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Midterhuken & Eholmen
Norway Tanamunningen
Denmark Romsø and Hindsholm peninsula
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Northeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Estonia Karala-Pilguse
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar
Estonia Riksu coast
Estonia Kunda
Estonia Vilsandi archipelago
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Terschelling
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Estonia Küdema bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Iceland Snaefellsnes
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn
Sweden Kalmar – Pataholm

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Sterna paradisaea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/10/2020.