Arctic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 148,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 166,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 400000-599999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Stable suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13.5 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 39,900-56,200 pairs, which equates to 79,800-112,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.400,000-560,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The population is therefore placed in the band 400,000-599,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Antarctica V Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Argentina N Extant
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Australia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahamas N Extant
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium N Extant
Belize N Extant Yes Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Brazil N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant
Canada N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant
Chile N Extant
Christmas Island (to Australia) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Congo U Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia V Extant
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Ethiopia V Extant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Fiji V Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia V Extant
Germany N Extant Yes
Ghana V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Grenada V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant
Honduras N Extant
Hungary N Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya V Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Malta V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mexico N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant
New Zealand N Extant
Nicaragua N Extant
Nigeria V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes
Panama N Extant
Papua New Guinea U Extant
Peru N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia V Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone V Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant
Slovenia V Extant
Solomon Islands N Extant
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) N Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan V Extant Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tanzania V Extant
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste V Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Vanuatu N Extant
Venezuela N Extant
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Aqajarua-Sullorsuaq (Mudderbugten and Kvandalen)
Greenland (to Denmark) Ikkattoq fjord and islands
Greenland (to Denmark) Stordal-Moskusoksefjord-Badlanddal-Loch Fyne-Myggbukta
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Skúvoy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Fugloy
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Mykines and Mykineshólmur
Cyprus Akrotiri cliffs
Iceland Brunasandur
Iceland Breidamerkursandur - Fagurholsmyri
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Rödkallen – Söräspen Islands
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Iceland Utherad
Finland Föglö southern archipelago
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Russia (European) Seven islands
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
France Littoral Augeron
United Kingdom Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom Ronas Hill - North Roe and Tingon
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Papa Stour
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom West Burrafirth
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom Sandwick and Clift Hills
United Kingdom South Bressay
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
Greenland (to Denmark) Kitsissunnguit (Grønne Ejland)
Sweden Bonden Island
Norway Loppa
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Sklinna
Norway Runde
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Jan Mayen island
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Canada Placentia Bay
Canada Northeast James Bay Coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
St Vincent and the Grenadines Ashton Wetland
Spain Costa da Morte
Belize Belize Coastal and near shore islands
Sweden Archipelago of Nothern Hälsingland
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Norway Andøya (including Skogvoll)
Norway Froan
Norway Slettnes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Senegal Northern Senegal shelf break
Mauritania Canary current shelf-break (south)
Morocco Canary current shelf-break (north)
Sweden Bay of Brå – Hävringe Island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Stercorarius parasiticus. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 08/02/2023.