Arctic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 148,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 166,000,000 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 400000-599999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend stable suspected -
Generation length (years) 13.5 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 39,900-56,200 pairs, which equates to 79,800-112,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 20% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is c.400,000-560,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population sizes have been estimated at c.50-10,000 wintering individuals in Japan and c.100-100,000 breeding pairs and c.50-10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). The population is therefore placed in the band 400,000-599,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. The European population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Algeria extant native
Angola extant native
Antarctica extant vagrant
Antigua and Barbuda extant native
Argentina extant native
Aruba (to Netherlands) extant native
Australia extant native
Austria extant native yes
Azerbaijan extant native yes yes
Bahamas extant native
Bahrain extant native yes yes
Bangladesh extant native
Barbados extant native
Belarus extant vagrant
Belgium extant native
Belize extant native yes yes
Bermuda (to UK) extant native
Bosnia and Herzegovina extant vagrant
Brazil extant native
Bulgaria extant native yes
Cameroon extant vagrant
Canada extant native
Cape Verde extant native
Cayman Islands (to UK) extant native
Chile extant native
Christmas Island (to Australia) extant vagrant
Colombia extant native
Congo extant uncertain
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant vagrant
Costa Rica extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native
Croatia extant vagrant
Cuba extant native
Curaçao (to Netherlands) extant native yes
Cyprus extant native yes
Czechia extant native
Denmark extant native yes
Dominica extant native
Dominican Republic extant native yes
Ecuador extant native
Egypt extant native
Eritrea extant native
Ethiopia extant vagrant
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) extant native
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) extant native yes
Fiji extant vagrant yes
Finland extant native yes yes
France extant native yes yes
French Guiana extant native
Gabon extant native
Gambia extant native
Georgia extant vagrant
Germany extant native yes
Ghana extant vagrant
Gibraltar (to UK) extant native yes
Greece extant native yes
Greenland (to Denmark) extant native yes
Grenada extant vagrant
Guadeloupe (to France) extant native yes
Guatemala extant native
Guinea extant native
Guinea-Bissau extant native
Guyana extant native
Haiti extant native
Honduras extant native
Hungary extant native
Iceland extant native yes
India extant native
Indonesia extant native
Iran, Islamic Republic of extant native yes yes
Iraq extant native yes
Ireland extant native
Israel extant native
Italy extant native yes
Jamaica extant vagrant
Japan extant native
Jordan extant native yes
Kazakhstan extant vagrant
Kenya extant vagrant
Kuwait extant native yes yes
Kyrgyzstan extant vagrant
Latvia extant vagrant
Lebanon extant vagrant yes
Liberia extant native
Libya extant vagrant
Luxembourg extant vagrant
Malaysia extant native
Malta extant vagrant
Martinique (to France) extant native
Mauritania extant native
Mexico extant native
Micronesia, Federated States of extant native yes
Montenegro extant vagrant yes
Montserrat (to UK) extant native
Morocco extant native
Mozambique extant native
Namibia extant native
Netherlands extant native yes
New Caledonia (to France) extant native
New Zealand extant native
Nicaragua extant native
Nigeria extant vagrant
Norway extant native yes
Oman extant native yes yes
Pakistan extant native
Palestine extant native yes
Panama extant native
Papua New Guinea extant uncertain
Peru extant native
Poland extant native yes
Portugal extant native yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) extant native
Romania extant native yes
Russia extant native yes
Russia (Asian) extant native yes
Russia (Central Asian) extant native yes
Russia (European) extant native yes
Saudi Arabia extant native yes yes
Senegal extant native
Serbia extant vagrant yes
Seychelles extant vagrant
Sierra Leone extant vagrant
Singapore extant native
Slovakia extant native
Slovenia extant vagrant
Solomon Islands extant native
Somalia extant native
South Africa extant native
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands extant native
South Korea extant native
Spain extant native
Sri Lanka extant native
St Helena (to UK) extant native
St Kitts and Nevis extant native
St Lucia extant native
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) extant native yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines extant native
Sudan extant vagrant yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) extant native yes
Sweden extant native yes yes
Switzerland extant native
Taiwan, China extant native
Tanzania extant vagrant
Thailand extant native
Timor-Leste extant vagrant
Togo extant native
Trinidad and Tobago extant native
Tunisia extant native
Türkiye extant native yes
Turkmenistan extant native yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) extant native
United Arab Emirates extant native yes yes
United Kingdom extant native yes yes
Uruguay extant native yes
USA extant native yes
Vanuatu extant native
Venezuela extant native
Virgin Islands (to UK) extant native yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) extant native yes
Yemen extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Iceland Brunasandur
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Iceland Utherad
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Spain Costa da Morte
United Kingdom Blackpark and Gutcher, Yell
United Kingdom Crussa Field and the Heogs
United Kingdom Hill of Colvadale and Sobul
United Kingdom Moorland Areas, Central Shetland
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Cape Busto-Luanco
Norway Slettnes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Bjørnøya (Bear Island)
Norway Varanger Peninsula
Russia (Asian) Utkholok river
Russia (Asian) Kolyma delta
Russia (Asian) Izvestiy Tsik islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Tundra major breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Stercorarius parasiticus. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.