Arctic Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus


Anderson, D.W. 1970. Chlorinated hydrocarbons: their dynamics and eggshell effects in herring gulls and other species. PhD Thesis.

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Gorski, W.; Jakuczun, B.; Nitecki, C.; Petryna, A. 1977. Investigation of oil pollution on the Polish Baltic coast in 1974-1975. Przeglad Zoologiczny 21(1): 20-23.

Huppop. O. and Wurm, S. 2000. Effects of winter fishery activities on resting numbers, food and body condition of large gulls Larus argentatus and L-marinus in the south-eastern North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 194: 241-247.

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Morris, R.D. and Black, J.E. 1980. Radiotelemetry and herring gull foraging patterns. Journal of Field Ornithology 51: 110-118.

Newton, I. and Little, B. 2009. Assessment of wind-farm and other bird casualties from carcasses found on a Northumbrian beach over an 11-year period. Bird Study 56(2): 158-167.

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Nogales, M., Zonfrillo, B. and Monaghan, P. 1995. Diets of adult and chick herring gulls Larus argentatus argentatus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland. Seabird 17: 56-63.

Pons, J. M., Migot. P. 1995. Life-history strategy of the herring gull: changes in survival and fecundity in a population subjected to various feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 592-599.

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Sell, M., Vogt., T. 1986. [Ecology of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) wintering inland: selection and attachment of feeding and roosting sites in the Ruhr region.]. Vogelwarte5 107: 18-3.

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Sibley, R. M., McCleery, R. H. 1983. Increase in weight of herring gulls while feeding. Journal of Animal Ecology 52: 35-50.

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Spaans, A. L. 1971. On the feeding ecology of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus Pont, in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Ardea 59(3-4): 98-188.

Verbeek, N. A. M. 1977. Timing of primary moult in adult Herring Gulls and Lesser Black-backed Gulls. J. Ornithol. 118: 87-92.

Wetlands International. 2014. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Witt, H-H., Crespo, J., de Juana, E. & Varela, J. 1981. Comparative feeding ecology of Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii and the Herring Gull L. argentatus in the Mediterranean. Ibis 123: 519–526.

Further resources

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Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Larus smithsonianus. Downloaded from on 04/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/12/2021.