Arctic Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus


Anderson, D.W. 1970. Chlorinated hydrocarbons: their dynamics and eggshell effects in herring gulls and other species. PhD Thesis.

BirdLife International. 2000. The Development of Boundary Selection Criteria for the Extension of Breeding Seabird Special Protection Areas into the Marine Environment. OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic. Vlissingen (Flushing).

Bregnballe, T.; Noer, H.; Christensen, T.K.; Clausen, P.; Asferg, T.; Fox, A.D.; Delany, S. 2006. Sustainable hunting of migratory waterbirds: the Danish approach. In: G. Boere, C. Galbraith and D. Stroud (eds), Waterbirds around the world, pp. 854-860. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Cramp, S.; Simmons, K. E. L. 1983. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic vol. III: waders to gulls. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Delany, S.; Scott, D. 2006. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Gorski, W.; Jakuczun, B.; Nitecki, C.; Petryna, A. 1977. Investigation of oil pollution on the Polish Baltic coast in 1974-1975. Przeglad Zoologiczny 21(1): 20-23.

Huppop. O. and Wurm, S. 2000. Effects of winter fishery activities on resting numbers, food and body condition of large gulls Larus argentatus and L-marinus in the south-eastern North Sea. Marine Ecology Progress Series 194: 241-247.

IUCN. 2018. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2018-2. Available at: (Accessed: 15 November 2018).

IUCN. 2019. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2019-3. Available at: (Accessed: 10 December 2019).

Klein, R. 1994. Silbermöwen Larus argentatus und Weisskopfmöwen Larus cachinnans auf Mülldeponien in Mecklenburg - erste Ergebnisse einer Ringfundanalyse . Vogelwelt 115: 267-286.

Melville, D.S.; Shortridge, K.F. 2006. Migratory waterbirds and avian influenza in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway with particular reference to the 2003-2004 H5N1 outbreak. In: Boere, G.; Galbraith, C.; Stroud, D (ed.), Waterbirds around the World, pp. 432-438. The Stationery Office, Edinburgh, U.K.

Morris, R.D. and Black, J.E. 1980. Radiotelemetry and herring gull foraging patterns. Journal of Field Ornithology 51: 110-118.

Newton, I. and Little, B. 2009. Assessment of wind-farm and other bird casualties from carcasses found on a Northumbrian beach over an 11-year period. Bird Study 56(2): 158-167.

Nisbet, I. C. T., D. V. Weseloh, C. E. Hebert, M. L. Mallory, A. F. Poole, J. C. Ellis, P. Pyle, and M. A. Patten. 2017. Herring Gull (Larus argentatus). Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Nogales, M., Zonfrillo, B. and Monaghan, P. 1995. Diets of adult and chick herring gulls Larus argentatus argentatus on Ailsa Craig, south-west Scotland. Seabird 17: 56-63.

Pons, J. M., Migot. P. 1995. Life-history strategy of the herring gull: changes in survival and fecundity in a population subjected to various feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology 64: 592-599.

Richards, A. 1990. Seabirds of the northern hemisphere. Dragon's World Ltd, Limpsfield, U.K.

Sell, M., Vogt., T. 1986. [Ecology of Herring Gulls (Larus argentatus) wintering inland: selection and attachment of feeding and roosting sites in the Ruhr region.]. Vogelwarte5 107: 18-3.

Shamoun-Baranes, J., van Loon, E. 2006. Energetic influence on gull flight strategy selection. Journal of Experimental Biology 209(18): 3489-3498.

Sibley, R. M., McCleery, R. H. 1983. Increase in weight of herring gulls while feeding. Journal of Animal Ecology 52: 35-50.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sokolov, L. V.; Gordienko, N. S. 2008. Has recent climate warming affected the dates of bird arrival to the Il'men Reserve in the Southern Urals? Russian Journal of Ecology 39: 56-62.

Spaans, A. L. 1971. On the feeding ecology of the Herring Gull Larus argentatus Pont, in the Northern part of the Netherlands. Ardea 59(3-4): 98-188.

Verbeek, N. A. M. 1977. Timing of primary moult in adult Herring Gulls and Lesser Black-backed Gulls. J. Ornithol. 118: 87-92.

Wetlands International. 2014. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: (Accessed: 12 June 2014).

Witt, H-H., Crespo, J., de Juana, E. & Varela, J. 1981. Comparative feeding ecology of Audouin’s Gull Larus audouinii and the Herring Gull L. argentatus in the Mediterranean. Ibis 123: 519–526.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus smithsonianus. Downloaded from on 03/10/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 03/10/2023.