LC
Arctic Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Larus argentatus and L. smithsonianus (the latter including vegae and mongolicus) (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as L. argentatus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 51,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 74,100,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number c.430,000-520,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2014).

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) and is listed as declining by Wetlands International (2014).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Colombia V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador V Extant
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Palau V Extant
Panama N Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Larus smithsonianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019.