LC
Arctic Herring Gull Larus smithsonianus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Larus argentatus and L. smithsonianus (the latter including vegae and mongolicus) (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as L. argentatus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 11,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,160,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2014
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number c.430,000-520,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2014).

Trend justification: This species has undergone a small or statistically insignificant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) and is listed as declining by Wetlands International (2014).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant Yes
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
Colombia V Extant
Costa Rica N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant Yes
Dominica N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador V Extant
El Salvador N Extant Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Jamaica V Extant
Japan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) V Extant
Palau V Extant
Panama N Extant Yes
Philippines V Extant
Puerto Rico (to USA) N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant Yes
St Lucia N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) V Extant
USA N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Venezuela V Extant
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Latvia Engure lake
Ireland Inishtrahull
Ireland Roaninish
Ireland Inishmurray
Ireland Inishglora and Inishkeeragh
Ireland Inishkea Islands
Ireland Clare Island cliffs
Ireland Magharee Islands, Mucklaghmore and Illaunbarnagh
Ireland Blasket Islands
Ireland Puffin Island
Ireland The Skelligs: Great Skellig and Little Skellig
Ireland Saltee Islands
Ireland Skerries Islands
Ireland Lambay Island
Ireland Rockabill
Ireland Ireland's Eye
Ireland Helvick Head
Ireland Lough Derg (Donegal)
Ireland Old Head of Kinsale
Ireland Howth Head
Ireland Wicklow Head
Ireland West Donegal coast
Sweden Archipelago of Stockholm
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Sweden Gnäggen Island
Sweden Bonden Island
Sweden Bay of Rynninge
Sweden Lövsta Bight – Björn Archipelago
Sweden Gräsö Archipelago
Sweden Holmöarna Archipelago
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Vistula river mouth
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Starzawa ponds
Poland Malopolska Wisla river gap
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Mietkow reservoir
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Finland Eckerö and Hammarland archipelago
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Finland Korppoo and Nauvo southern archipelago
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoo outer archipelago
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Pernaja outer archipelago
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Itäinen Suomenlahti National Park
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Torronsuo and Lake Talpianjärvi
Finland Kukkiajärvi lake
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Linnansaari
Finland Keski-Kallavesi and Kuhanen Lake
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Päätyeenlahti bay
Finland Outokumpu and Kaavi oligotrophic lakes
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Finland Merenkurkku archipelago
Finland Uusikaarlepyy archipelago
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Sundominlahti Bay and Söderfjärden
Finland Kokkola and Kälviä archipelago
Finland Rahja archipelago
Finland Rummelö-Harrbodan
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Kitka lake
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Krunnit archipelago
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Kevo
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Russia (European) South-eastern coast of Lake Ladoga
Russia (European) Ainov islands
Russia (European) Sources of the River Luga
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Russia (European) Valaamski archipelago
Russia (European) Seven islands
Russia (European) Onega Bay of the White Sea
Russia (European) Berezoviye islands of Vyborg Bay
Russia (European) Kurgalski Peninsula
Russia (European) Danilovskoe marshes
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Domaine d'Orx
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Falaise du Bessin
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Iles Chausey
France Littoral Augeron
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Archipel des Sept-Iles
France Iles de la Colombière, de la Nellière et des Haches
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Archipel de Molène
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Cap Sizun
France Archipel des Glénan
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Ile d'Ouessant
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Cap Frehel
France Baie de Vilaine
France Presqu'île de Crozon, Tas de Pois et Rochers du Toulinguet
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Cap Fagnet
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France Val de Saône
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
United Kingdom Ailsa Craig
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Buchan Ness to Collieston Coast
United Kingdom Caithness Cliffs
United Kingdom Cape Wrath
United Kingdom Copinsay
United Kingdom Coquet Island
United Kingdom Dungeness To Pett Levels
United Kingdom East Sanday
United Kingdom Calf of Eday
United Kingdom Fair Isle
United Kingdom Fetlar
United Kingdom Firth of Forth
United Kingdom Flamborough Head and Bempton Cliffs
United Kingdom Flannan Isles
United Kingdom Firth of Forth Islands
United Kingdom Foula
United Kingdom Fowlsheugh
United Kingdom Glannau Aberdaron and Ynys Enlli
United Kingdom Glannau Ynys Gybi/Holy Island Coast
United Kingdom Grassholm
United Kingdom Handa
United Kingdom Hermaness, Saxa Vord and Valla Field
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Isles of Scilly
United Kingdom Lewis Peatlands
United Kingdom Marwick Head
United Kingdom Mersey Estuary
United Kingdom Mingulay and Berneray
United Kingdom Monach Islands
United Kingdom Morecambe Bay
United Kingdom Mousa
United Kingdom North Colonsay and Western Cliffs
United Kingdom North Rona and Sula Sgeir
United Kingdom North Ronaldsay Coast
United Kingdom North Uist Machair and Islands
United Kingdom Noss
United Kingdom Alde - Ore Estuary
United Kingdom Papa Westray (North Hill and Holm)
United Kingdom Pembrokeshire Cliffs
United Kingdom Pentland Firth Islands
United Kingdom Priest Island
United Kingdom Rathlin Island
United Kingdom Rum
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom Rosehearty to Fraserburgh Coast
United Kingdom Sanda Island
United Kingdom Severn Estuary
United Kingdom Sheep Island
United Kingdom Shiant Isles
United Kingdom Skokholm and Skomer
United Kingdom South-eastern Stronsay
United Kingdom St Abbs Head to Fast Castle
United Kingdom St Kilda
United Kingdom Strangford Lough and islands
United Kingdom Sule Skerry and Sule Stack
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
United Kingdom Traeth Lafan, Conwy Bay
United Kingdom Treshnish Isles
United Kingdom Troup, Pennan and Lion Heads
United Kingdom Upper Solway Flats and Marshes
United Kingdom West Westray
United Kingdom Ynys Feurig, Cemlyn Bay and the Skerries
United Kingdom Almorness Point and Hestan Island
United Kingdom Auskerry
United Kingdom Canna and Sanday
United Kingdom Cardigan Island
United Kingdom Correen Hills
United Kingdom North Sutherland Coastal Islands
United Kingdom Eilean nan Ron
United Kingdom Faray and Holm of Faray
United Kingdom Gigha Island and Islets
United Kingdom Horse Island
United Kingdom Little Cumbrae Island
United Kingdom Mochrum and Castle Lochs
United Kingdom North Westray Coast
United Kingdom Rothiesholm Peninsula, Stronsay
United Kingdom South Walls and Switha
United Kingdom Tips of Corsemaul and Tom Mor
United Kingdom Tolsta Head, Lewis
United Kingdom Calf of Man
United Kingdom Isle of Man Sea Cliffs
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Mandø
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Odense Fjord
Denmark Fanø
Denmark Northern Kattegat
Denmark Skagerrak-Southwest Norwegian trench
Slovakia Slnava
Norway Hornøy and Reinøy
Norway Kongsøy
Norway Sør-Fugløy
Norway Runde
Norway Kjørholmane seabird reserve
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Skjernøy, South Skerries
Norway Stjørdalsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Sklinna
Norway Inner Porsangerfjord
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Schlei
Germany Coastline of Probstei
Germany Grosser Plöner See
Germany Hohwachter Bucht
Germany Grosser and Kleiner Binnensee
Germany Western bay of the Fehmarnsund
Germany Strand lakes and fish-ponds in south-western Fehmarn
Germany Western and northern coast of Fehmarn: Krummsteert-Puttgarden
Germany Mühlenberger Loch
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Isles of Langenwerder and Walfisch
Germany Westrügen - Hiddensee - Zingst
Germany Isles of Oie and Kirr
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Heerter See
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Wittmund-Wangerland
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Alfsee
Germany Butjadingen
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Halligen Oland, Langeneß, Nordstrandischmoor, Gröde und Hooge
Germany Eastern part of Kiel Bight
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Lower Saxonian North Sea off the East Frisian Islands
Poland Central Polish coastal waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Belarus Sporaŭskaje balota
Canada Muriel Lake
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes
Canada Lac La Biche
Canada Amphitrite and Swiftsure Banks
Canada Cumshewa Inlet north to Sheldens Bay
Canada McIntyre Beach and Rose Spit
Canada Kaweenakumik Lake
Canada Pipestone Rocks
Canada North, West, and East Shoal Lakes
Canada Little George Island
Canada North Channel Island
Canada Dory's Reef
Canada South Long Island
Canada Kasakeemeemisekak Islands
Canada Lake St. Martin Islands
Canada Long Island and Long Island Bay
Canada Louis Island and Associated Reefs
Canada Marshy Point
Canada Riverton Sandy Bar
Canada Sand Reef Islands
Canada Spruce Island Reef
Canada The Wolves Archipelago
Canada Grand Manan Archipelago
Canada Manawagonish Island
Canada Point Lepreau/Maces Bay
Canada Quoddy Region
Canada Cape St. Mary's
Canada Witless Bay Islands
Canada Baccalieu Island
Canada Funk Island
Canada Quidi Vidi Lake
Canada Corbin Island
Canada Middle Lawn Island
Canada Green Island
Canada Sable Island, Nova Scotia
Canada Coats Island/Cape Pembroke
Canada North Belcher Islands
Canada Salikuit Islands
Canada Sleeper Islands
Canada Niagara River Corridor
Canada Pelee Island Archipelago
Canada The Watchers
Canada The Cousins
Canada Port Colborne (breakwater and mainland)
Canada Pittock Reservoir
Canada Leslie Street Spit
Canada Pigeon Island
Canada Wildwood Gull Roost
Canada Lower Detroit River
Canada Limestone Islands
Canada Hannah Bay
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada North Point
Canada Nottawasaga Island
Canada Bonaventure Island
Canada Cap Tourmente
Canada Île Shag
Canada Île Brion
Canada Île de l'Est
Canada Rocher Le Corps Mort
Canada Île Paquet
Canada Îlot C
Canada Île aux Loups Marins
Canada Banc de Carleton
Canada Shigawake-Newport
Canada Pointe Saint-Pierre et île Plate
Canada Cap d'Espoir
Canada Barachois de Malbaie
Canada Baie de Gaspé
Canada Péninsule de Forillon
Canada Îles Les Boules
Canada Île Bicquette
Canada Île aux Basques et Les Razades
Canada Île aux Pommes
Canada Île Blanche
Canada Îles Pèlerins
Canada Brandypot Islands
Canada Île aux Fraises
Canada Baie de Brador
Canada Saint-Augustin Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Îles Sainte-Marie
Canada Baie des Loups
Canada Watshishou
Canada Petite Île Sainte-Geneviève
Canada Betchouane
Canada Île Nue de Mingan
Canada La Grosse Boule Island
Canada Corossol Island
Canada Baie Comeau
Canada Baie des Escoumins et Grandes-Bergeronnes
Canada Tadoussac
Canada Marais de Saint-Fulgence
Canada Île Rouge
Canada Batture Batture aux Alouettes and mouth of Saguenay River
Canada Le Pilier de Pierre
Canada Le Pilier de Bois
Canada Battures aux Loups Marins
Canada Montmagny
Canada Réserve nationale de faune des Îles-de-Contrecoeur
Canada Île Deslauriers
Canada Île de la Couvée
Canada Île aux Hérons Migratory Bird Sanctuary
Canada Barrage de Beauharnois
Canada Île a Calculot
Canada Primrose Lake
Canada Suggi Lake
Canada Shallow Bay, Big Slough and Swan Lake
Russia (European) Seskar island
Mongolia Erkhel Lake
Mongolia Dashinchilen Bayan Lake
Russia (Asian) Ol'khon area
Russia (Asian) Angara river source
Russia (Asian) Iony Island
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Bahamas Harrold and Wilson Ponds National Park
Bahamas Grog Pond
Bahamas North Atlantic Abaco Cays
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Poland Lower Skawa River Valley
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Khersonesko-Fiolentske coastal zone
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Denmark Jammerbugten
Ireland Mid Waterford Coast
Jamaica Font Hill
Mongolia Oigon Lake
USA Gulf of Alaska Shelf Edge 143W60N
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
China (mainland) Jinzhou Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) marginal resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) marginal resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larus smithsonianus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/06/2020.