Araripe Manakin Antilophia bokermanni


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(ii) B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii); D A2c+3c+4c; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(ii)
2011 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2010 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2009 Critically Endangered B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 300 good
Number of locations 1 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 150-700 medium estimated 2010
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: In 2006, population size was estimated at 800 individuals based on two consecutive years of auditive censuses. A census at the end of 2010, which visited 93% of the known water springs, represents the most comprehensive survey of the species ever, and resulted in an estimate of 779 individuals (Aquasis in litt. 2011). It is placed in the band 250-999 individuals to account for uncertainty; this equates to 167-666 mature individuals, rounded here to 150-700 mature individuals. Following detailed survey work, Aquasis (2014) estimates that there are as many as 279 adult males in the population.

Trend justification: The species is assumed to be declining as forested habitat within its range is lost and the moist forest at springs that the species favours is being cleared to grow crops. Habitat quality is deteriorating due to deforestation, degradation of water resources and forest fires. In 2015, a fire destroyed 30ha of moist forest habitat, where suitable nesting habitat was found (W.A.G. Silva in litt. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brazil N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Brazil Chapada do Araripe
Brazil Chapada do Araripe

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 600 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Increase in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Antilophia bokermanni. Downloaded from on 27/01/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/01/2022.