Apo Sunbird Aethopyga boltoni


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a small range restricted both geographically and altitudinally. It is thought to be relatively stable at present within this area but careful monitoring of potential threats is required. It is therefore listed as Near Threatened.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as fairly common within its very small range (Cheke et al. 2001).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable, but may be declining very slowly owing to ongoing habitat degradation.

Distribution and population

This species is endemic to Mindanao, Philippines, where it is fairly common at sites including on Mt Malindang (race malindangensis), Mt Kitanglad, Mt Apo, Mt Pasian and Lake Sebu (nominate boltoni), and Mt Busa and Mt Matutum (race tibolii); this latter taxon ranging on Busa from 1,300 m upwards and on Matutum from 820 m upwards.


It generally occurs in flowering trees and shrubs in stunted (and mossy) forest above 1,500 m. It has been recorded breeding in January-July.


Although its area of occupancy must be very small, its habitat is apparently fairly secure.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
None are known.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine whether habitat loss poses any threat within its altitudinal range. Survey to quantify the population size. Grant protection to areas of suitable habitat to safeguard against future threats.


Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aethopyga boltoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2020.