EN
Antipodean Albatross Diomedea antipodensis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A4bde A4bde; D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A4bde
2017 Endangered A4bde
2016 Vulnerable D2
2012 Vulnerable D2
2010 Vulnerable D2
2008 Vulnerable D2
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2003 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 47,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 37,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 670 medium
Number of locations 3 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 3 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 27.4 - - -

Population justification: G. Elliot and K. Walker (in litt. 2017) roughly equated the global population size to be 50,000 mature individuals in 2016, based on an approximate annual breeding population of 9,050 breeding pairs, with the vast majority of individuals breeding on Adams and Antipodes Islands. However, since 2004 there has been a dramatic decrease in the population size and number of nests found on these two islands (see Elliott and Walker 2014, Elliott et al. 2016), and so the population size is likely smaller than this now.

Trend justification: Although both main populations had been stable or increasing in the 10 years up until 2004 (Elliott and Walker 2014, Elliott et al. 2016), both have subsequently declined dramatically. In 2016, the Auckland Island population had declined by 40% and the Antipodes Island population by about 60% from their peaks in 2004 (K. Walker and G. Elliott in litt. 2017). The most recent mark-recapture studies indicate a decline of 2.1% per annum in both males and females on the Auckland Islands over the last 10 years (Elliott et al. 2016) and 8.6% and 4.9% per annum for females and males respectively on Antipodes Island over the last 7 years (G. Elliott and K. Walker, unpubl. data). Recent surveys of Antipodes and Adams Islands (Elliott and Walker 2014, Elliott et al. 2016) combined with unpublished data suggest that declines may be 97.6% over 3 generations (82 years) (K. Walker and G. Elliott in litt. 2016). Modelling exercises have also predicted very large declines. Combining the rate of decline for Antipodes (Edwards et al. 2016 per K. Walker and G. Elliott in litt. 2016) and Adams (Francis et al. 2015 per K. Walker and G. Elliott in litt. 2016) give an annual decline of 5.7% per year, equating to a 99% decline over 3 generations. However, since the data appear to show that the population was stable or increasing prior to 2004, recent declines may be related to a population cycle rather than a true decline. There are plausible threats to explain population declines, so it is suspected that declines may continue at least some way into the future. Taking approximate numbers of breeding birds from the figures in Elliott and Walker (2014) and Elliott et al. (2016), and restricting the number of mature, breeding individuals to the number of females x2 (to take into account the species's sex imbalance), the estimated reduction roughly equates to 52% between 2004 and 2014. If all adults were included, the decline would equate to roughly 44%, but given that threats may continue into the future it may be assumed that the population will decline sufficiently in the subsequent 72 years that the rate of decline may be >50% over a 3 generation period that encompasses the past and the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica U Extant
Australia N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
French Polynesia U Extant
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Norfolk Island (to Australia) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 10 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 11 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 13 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southwest 14 - Marine
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Antipodes (offshore)
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Auckland Islands 1 (offshore)
New Zealand Auckland Islands 2 (near-shore)
New Zealand Campbell (offshore)
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands (nearshore)
New Zealand Canterbury (offshore)
New Zealand Chatham (offshore)
New Zealand Cook Strait
New Zealand Disappointment Island
New Zealand East Coast South Island (offshore)
New Zealand Kaikoura (offshore)
New Zealand Main Auckland Island
New Zealand Rakiura (offshore)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Shrubland Subantarctic major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Diomedea antipodensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/12/2019.