EN
Antioquia Bristle-tyrant Pogonotriccus lanyoni



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species qualifies as Endangered owing to its very small, severely fragmented range, within which habitat loss is occurring at a rapid rate. Its population is assumed to be very small and declining, and made up of extremely small subpopulations.

Population justification
This species's global population is estimated at a few thousand individuals (del Hoyo et al. 2004). It is placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals, equating to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and ongoing decline is suspected, owing to rates of habitat loss.

Distribution and population

Phylloscartes lanyoni occurs locally on the east and north slopes of the central Andes in Caldas and Antioquia, and on the west slope of the east Andes in Cundinamarca, Boyacá and Santander, Colombia. It is known from the type-series, taken in the lower Cauca Valley at the northern tip of the Andes in 1948, and a few modern localities in the middle and upper Magdalena Valley. It has been seen on several occasions at Río Claro Natural Reserve, and recently also at Anará (Renjifo et al. 2002), Antioquia, as well as near La Victoria, Caldas. It is respectively uncommon and common at El Vergel, Cundinamarca, and Monte del Diablo, Boyacá (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999) and is also present in Yacopi and La Palma municipalities, Cundinamarca (O. Cortes in litt. 2007).

Ecology

It inhabits semi-deciduous foothill-forest at 450-900 m (Stiles et al. 1999). Observations have been made in tall second growth, regenerating, natural tree gaps, and disturbed remnant forest (O. Cortes in litt. 2007). It is often in mosaics of these habitat-types and pastoral or cultivated land (Stiles et al. 1999), although this use of habitat may reflect availability rather than preference. Nesting has been recorded in March (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999), with four birds in a family group seen in June (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). It often joins mixed-species flocks (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999).

Threats

Logging, livestock-farming, arable cultivation, infrastucture development, oil extraction and mining have all played a part in the destruction of habitat in its range (Stiles et al. 1999). The northern tip of the central Andes has been progressively settled and deforested since the 19th century, although some extensive forests survive (Forero 1989, Wege and Long 1995). The middle Magdalena Valley was rapidly opened up, colonised, logged and farmed during the 1960s and 1970s, with nearly 40,000 km2 of forest cleared in little over a decade, although regeneration has begun following land abandonment in some areas (Stiles et al. 1999).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
Considered Endangered at the national level in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002). It is protected in the small (c.1 km2) Río Claro Natural Reserve, which also buffers adjacent forested areas from colonisation (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). The c.4 km2 forest at Monte del Diablo has been preserved by local people for hunting, while that at La Victoria is a 0.2 km2 watershed reserve (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Search for the species in any potentially suitable habitat, e.g. the interior of the Serranía de las Quinchas, and isolated remnants at the northern tip of the central Andes. Protect such areas if found (Wege and Long 1995, Stiles et al. 1999). Conduct surveys within the known range to clarify its distribution and conservation status. Study its ecological requirements.

Identification

11 cm. Bright yellow-and-olive flycatcher with contrasting grey crown. Incomplete eye-ring. Duskier wings and tail with two yellow wing-bars. Bright yellow underparts. Small, thin bill, black maxilla, flesh lower mandible. Similar spp. Spectacled Bristle-tyrant P. orbitalis has complete eye-ring, narrower whitish-yellow wing-bars, yellowish-olive underparts, and grey crown blending into greenish back. Marble-faced Bristle-tyrant P. ophthalmicus is larger, with distinct black auricular patch. Voice Song recalls other Pogonotriccus: a short, stuttering, descending trill, lasting c. 2 sec., ending with a few longer sweep notes at a slightly higher pitch. Calls comprise sharp dry chit or softer tsip notes (Fitzpatrick and Sharpe 2016). 

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Isherwood, I., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Salaman, P., Cortés, O., Stiles, E., Mark, T.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Pogonotriccus lanyoni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2017.