EN
Anjouan Scops-owl Otus capnodes



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii) A2cde+3cde; B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii); D2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)+2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2015 Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2014 Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(i,ii)
2013 Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i,ii)
2012 Critically Endangered B2ab(i,ii,iii,v);C2a(i,ii)
2011 Critically Endangered B2a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2010 Critically Endangered B2a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered B2a+b(i,ii,iii,v); C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 350 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 170 medium
Number of locations 1 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2300-3600 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -

Population justification: Surveys carried out in 2010-2011 suggested that the species may be more widespread than previously thought, and frequent in degraded forest, with habitat modelling giving a potential range of 93.4 km2. Density was estimated at 0.53 birds per hectare (0.44-0.63, 95% CI), meaning that the total population possibly may be as high as 4,950 individuals (3,641-6,632, 95% CI) (K. Green in litt. 2010, 2011, Lloyd 2010). A recently published paper that collected data in 2010-2011 estimated the population at 3,466 individuals (2,654-4,526, 95% CI) during the dry season and 5,464 in the wet season (4,232-7,054, 95% CI) (Green et al. 2015) (rounded here to 3,500-5,500 individuals), which would roughly equate to 2,300-3,600 mature individuals.

Trend justification: It is suspected to be decreasing rapidly owing primarily to habitat clearance and perhaps also predation and competition from invasive species.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Comoros N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Comoros Ndzuani highlands
Comoros Moya Forest
Comoros Mont Ntringui (Ndzuani highlands)

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 300 - 1595 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 0 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Acridotheres tristis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Lantana camara Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rubus rosifolius Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Otus capnodes. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/09/2020.