VU
Andean Flamingo Phoenicoparrus andinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2acd+4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A2acd+4acd
2016 Vulnerable A2acd+4acd
2014 Vulnerable A2acd+4acd
2012 Vulnerable A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d; A3b,c,d; A4b,c,d
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 793,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 743,000 medium
Number of locations 10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good not applicable 0
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.1 - - -

Population justification: Population assessments are difficult and vary greatly (Hurlbert 1978, 1981, Scott and Carbonell 1986, Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998). In the 2010 International Simultaneous Census 38,675 individuals were counted (Marconi et al. 2011). An aerial survey of Laguna Mar Chiquita in summer 2018 recorded 11,607 individuals (Cabaña et al. 2018). However, due to high uncertainty, the overall population size has not been quantified.

Trend justification: From the mid-1980s to mid-1990s, the population declined from around 50,000-100,000 individuals to 34,000 (Rocha and Quiroga 1997), indicating a rapid decline. Breeding success appears to be consistently low (Flamingo Action Plan Questionnaire 1998), and thus declines may continue for many years, because flamingos have a high longevity (20-50 years) (del Hoyo 1992); however, data from  the International Simultaneous Census and Simultaneous Census of Network Sites, including over 38,000 individuals recorded in 2010 (Marconi et al. 2011), suggest that the population may have been stable at least during 1997-2010.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Brazil V Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bolivia Lago Poopó y Río Laka Jahuira
Bolivia Lagunas de Agua Dulce del Sureste de Potosí
Bolivia Lagunas Salinas del Suroeste de Potosí
Bolivia Parque Nacional Sajama
Bolivia Reserva Biológica Cordillera de Sama
Peru Covire
Peru Lago Lagunillas
Peru Lago Parinacochas
Peru Reserva Nacional Salinas y Aguada Blanca
Bolivia Lago Titicaca (Sector Boliviano)
Argentina Socompá-Llullaillaco
Argentina Luracatao y Valles Calchaquíes
Argentina Laguna Los Enamorados
Argentina Laguna Guayatayoc
Argentina Lagunillas
Argentina Lagunas San Miguel y El Sauce
Argentina Reserva Provincial Olaroz-Cauchari
Argentina Monumento Natural Laguna de Los Pozuelos
Argentina Lagunas Runtuyoc - Los Enamorados
Argentina Sistema de lagunas de Vilama-Pululos
Argentina Parque Provincial Cumbres Calchaquíes
Argentina Reserva Natural de La Angostura
Argentina Reserva Provincial y de la Biosfera Laguna Blanca
Argentina Salar del Hombre Muerto
Argentina Laguna Grande
Argentina Laguna La Alumbrera
Argentina Laguna Purulla
Argentina Laguna El Peinado
Argentina Sistema de Lagunas Los Aparejos, Azul y Negra
Argentina Laguna Azul
Argentina Salinas de Ambargasta
Argentina Bañados de Figueroa
Argentina Laguna Melincué
Argentina Bahía de Samborombón y Punta Rasa
Argentina Salinas Grandes
Argentina Bañados del Arroyo Chucul y Reserva Natural de Fauna Laguna La Felipa
Argentina Lagunas del suroeste y relictos del Caldenal
Argentina Reserva de Uso Múltiple Bañados del Río Dulce y Laguna Mar Chiquita
Argentina Reserva Provincial Laguna Brava
Argentina Bañados del Utis
Brazil Parque Nacional da Lagoa do Peixe
Chile Parque Nacional Lauca
Chile Parque Nacional Volcán Isluga
Chile Monumento Natural Salar de Surire
Chile Parque Nacional Salar de Huasco
Chile Reserva Nacional Los Flamencos - Soncor
Chile Salar de Tara
Chile Laguna Miscanti y Meñique
Chile Laguna del Negro Francisco y Laguna Santa Rosa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites major non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes major breeding
Altitude 2300 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (min) 50 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (commercial use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Seepage from mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phoenicoparrus andinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/09/2021.