Andean Condor Vultur gryphus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A4cde; C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A4cde; C2a(i)
2017 Near Threatened A2de+3de+4de; C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened A2d; A3d; A4d; C1
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status altitudinal migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 8,520,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6700 medium estimated 2001
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 28.9 - - -

Population justification: The species is naturally scarce. The global population has been estimated at 10,000 individuals, which equates to 6,700 mature individuals; however, recent information suggests that this is a maximum estimate (R. Wallace in litt. 2020). In Venezuela, the species may no longer be resident, with infrequently observed individuals probably visiting from Colombia, where recent population estimates detail 130 individuals, including reintroduced birds (Renjifo et al. 2016). In Ecuador, the population is estimated at 150 individuals (Naveda et al. 2016, Vargas et al. 2018). Peru holds a minimum of 150-250 individuals (Piana and Angulo 2015) and Bolivia holds around 1,400 individuals (Méndez et al. 2019). Chile and Argentina hold up to 2,000 individuals each, though there may be an overlap in these estimates (Wallace et al. 2020). The largest known population is in north-west Patagonia, with about 300 individuals, including 200 mature individuals (Lambertucci 2010, V. Escobar-Gimpel in litt. 2020). Despite being a wide-ranging species that covers large distances, it shows substantial genetic structuring, with dispersal being modulated by topographic features (Padró et al. 2018). It is therefore tentatively assumed that the species forms several subpopulations, which contain less than 1,000 mature individuals each, but this requires confirmation.

Trend justification: The species is in rapid decline caused by a variety of threats, including direct persecution by humans, lead poisoning, and deterioration of habitat quality through deliberate poisoning of carcasses. Even though the rate of decline has not been quantified across the entire range, it is suspected to fall in the band 30-49% over three generations (86.7 years; Wallace et al. 2020).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Bolivia N Extant Yes
Brazil V Extant
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Paraguay V Extant
Peru N Extant Yes
Venezuela R Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bolivia Yungas Superiores de Apolobamba
Bolivia Yungas Superiores de Madidi
Bolivia Azurduy
Bolivia Bosque de Polylepis de Madidi
Bolivia Bosques de Polylepis de Cotapata
Bolivia Cuenca Cotacajes
Bolivia KAA-IYA del Gran Chaco
Bolivia Lago Poopó y Río Laka Jahuira
Bolivia Lagunas de Agua Dulce del Sureste de Potosí
Bolivia Parque Nacional Sajama
Bolivia Reserva Biológica Cordillera de Sama
Bolivia Reserva Nacional de Flora y Fauna Tariquía
Bolivia Cuencas de Ríos Caine y Mizque
Bolivia Southern slopes of Tunari National Park (Vertiente Sur del Parque Nacional Tunari IBA)
Bolivia Yungas Superiores de Mosetenes y Cocapata
Colombia Eco-parque Los Besotes
Colombia Lago Cumbal
Colombia Alto Quindío
Colombia Valle del Río Frío
Ecuador Parque Nacional Cotopaxi
Ecuador Parque Nacional Sangay
Ecuador Refugio de Vida Silvestre Pasochoa
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Antisana (west) and adjacent areas
Ecuador Parque Nacional Cayambe-Coca
Peru Abra Málaga-Vilcanota
Peru Alto Valle Santa Eulalia-Milloc
Peru Bosque de Zárate
Peru Chalhuanca
Peru Champará
Peru Chaparrí
Peru Cordillera Huayhuash
Peru Coto de Caza El Angolo
Peru Lago de Junín
Peru Laguna de los Cóndores-Atuén
Peru Marcapomacocha
Peru Parque Nacional Huascarán
Peru Parque Nacional Río Abiseo
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
Peru Santuario Nacional de Calipuy
Peru Santuario Nacional del Ampay
Peru Valcón
Venezuela Parque Nacional Sierra Nevada
Argentina Parque Nacional Lanín
Peru Reserva Nacional Pampa Galeras
Peru Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape
Bolivia Lagunas Salinas del Suroeste de Potosí
Bolivia Bosque de Polylepis de Sanja Pampa
Bolivia Bosque de Polylepis de Mina Elba
Bolivia Bosque de Polylepis de Taquesi
Argentina Abra Grande
Argentina Parque Nacional Los Cardones
Argentina Parque Nacional Baritú
Argentina Parque Nacional El Rey
Argentina Quebrada del Toro
Argentina Itiyuro-Tuyunti
Argentina Lotes 32 y 33, Maíz Gordo
Argentina Cuesta del Obispo
Argentina Parque Provincial Laguna Pintascayoc
Argentina Quebrada de las Conchas
Argentina Sierras de Carahuasi
Argentina Sierra de Metán
Argentina Fincas Santiago y San Andrés
Argentina Sierra de Santa Victoria
Argentina Sierra Rosario de la Frontera
Argentina Río Santa María
Argentina Socompá-Llullaillaco
Argentina Santa Victoria, Cañani y Cayotal
Argentina Luracatao y Valles Calchaquíes
Argentina El Infiernillo
Argentina Sierra de Zenta
Argentina Alto Calilegua
Argentina Parque Nacional Calilegua
Argentina Caspala y Santa Ana
Argentina El Fuerte y Santa Clara
Argentina Laguna Guayatayoc
Argentina La Cornisa
Argentina Lagunillas
Argentina Reserva Natural Las Lancitas
Argentina Reserva Provincial de Uso Múltiple Laguna Leandro
Argentina Lagunas San Miguel y El Sauce
Argentina San Lucas
Argentina Reserva Provincial Olaroz-Cauchari
Argentina Pampichuela
Argentina Monumento Natural Laguna de Los Pozuelos
Argentina Cerro Negro de San Antonio
Argentina Lagunas Runtuyoc - Los Enamorados
Argentina San Francisco-Río Jordan
Argentina Queñoales de Santa Catalina
Argentina Tiraxi y Las Capillas
Argentina Valle Colorado y Valle Grande
Argentina Sistema de lagunas de Vilama-Pululos
Argentina Yala
Argentina Yavi y Yavi Chico
Argentina Ruinas de Quilmes
Argentina Parque Nacional Campo de los Alisos
Argentina Parque Provincial Cumbres Calchaquíes
Argentina Cuesta del Clavillo
Argentina Parque Provincial La Florida
Argentina Reserva Natural de La Angostura
Argentina Parque Provincial Los Ñuñorcos y Reserva Natural Quebrada del Portugués
Argentina Reserva Provincial y de la Biosfera Laguna Blanca
Argentina Salar del Hombre Muerto
Argentina Cuesta del Totoral
Argentina Cuesta de las Higuerillas
Argentina Sierra de Ambato
Argentina Laguna Purulla
Argentina Quebrada del Condorito National Park and Reserva Hidrica Provincial Pampa de Achala
Argentina Sierras del Norte Cordobés
Argentina Sistema Uritorco
Argentina Parque Nacional Talampaya
Argentina Reserva Provincial Laguna Brava
Argentina Parque Nacional El Leoncito
Argentina Reserva de la Biosfera Parque Nacional San Guillermo
Argentina Reserva Provincial El Payén
Argentina Parque Nacional Sierra de las Quijadas
Argentina Parque Nacional Laguna Blanca
Argentina Laguna de Varvarco Campos y Tapia
Argentina Reserva Provincial Lagunas de Epulaufquen
Argentina Reserva Provincial Tromen
Argentina Area Natural Protegida Auca Mahuida
Argentina Valle del Río Collón Curá
Argentina Parque Provincial Copahue-Caviahue
Argentina Aluminé-Moquehue
Argentina Nahuel Huapi National Park and Reserve
Argentina Extensión Límite Este y Sur del Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi
Argentina Parque Nacional Lago Puelo - Parque Provincial Río Turbio
Argentina Parque Nacional Los Alerces y Laguna Terraplén
Argentina Lago La Plata - Fontana
Argentina Parque Nacional Perito Moreno y Reserva Provincial San Lorenzo
Argentina Parque Nacional Los Glaciares y adyacencias (Estancias El Sosiego, La Soledad y Anita)
Argentina Península Mitre
Argentina Canal Beagle. Ushuaia a Islas Becasses
Argentina Parque Nacional Tierra del Fuego y Reserva Provincial Corazón de la Isla
Colombia Cerro Pintado (Serranía de Perijá)
Bolivia Serranía de Aguarague
Argentina Finca Las Costas/Cordón Lesser
Peru Cotahuasi
Peru Laguna de los Cóndores
Peru Río Abiseo y Tayabamba
Chile Salar de Tara
Chile Parque Nacional Lauca
Chile Monumento Natural Salar de Surire
Chile Laguna del Negro Francisco y Laguna Santa Rosa
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Yerba Loca
Chile Reserva Nacional Río Clarillo
Chile Valle del Yeso
Peru Cordillera Huayhuash y Nor-Oyón
Chile Península Antonio Varas
Chile Sierra Baguales
Chile Islote Albatros - Seno Almirantazgo
Chile Parque Nacional Torres del Paine
Chile Corredor Biológico Nevados de Chillán-Laguna del Laja
Chile Baker River Wetlands
Chile Chacabuco Valley and Baker River Entrance
Chile Coyahique Alto-Coite
Chile Isla Diego de Almagro
Chile Reserva Las Vicuñas
Argentina Parque Provincial Aconcagua y Monumento Natural Puente del Inca
Argentina Reserva Natural Villavicencio
Chile Reserva Nacional Altos de Lircay
Chile Parque Nacional Villarica
Chile Laguna San Rafael National Park
Chile Parque Nacional Alerce Andino
Chile Parque Nacional Huerquehue
Chile Parque Nacional Cabo de Hornos
Chile Parque Nacional Conguillio
Argentina Isla de los Estados - Banco Burdwood

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude major resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline marginal resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc marginal resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches marginal resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 5000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Coragyps atratus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Vultur gryphus. Downloaded from on 09/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 09/08/2022.