VU
Andaman Serpent-eagle Spilornis elgini



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2017 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2016 Near Threatened B1ab(ii,iii);C1+2a(i)
2012 Near Threatened B1ab(ii,iii);C1+2a(i)
2008 Near Threatened B1a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1; C2a(ii)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,600 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-4000 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 1-19 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 1-19 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.9 - - -

Population justification: Although considered quite common in its optimal habitat, the overall population size may in fact be quite small. A total of 62 individuals were recorded on 25 of 45 islands with a total area 3700 km2 surveyed in 1993-94 (Davidar et al. 1996). Therefore, its density has been considered to be not more than 1 or 2 individuals per km2 (P. Davidar in litt. 2016) with the total number of mature individuals considered to be 4,000 or less (P. Davidar in litt. 2016). Therefore, the population size is placed here in the range 1,000-4,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: There are no data on population trends; however; the species is suspected to be declining at a slow to moderate rate, owing to habitat degradation and hunting.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
India N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
India Austin Strait
India Barangtang - Rafters Creek
India Chainpur and Hanspuri
India Interview Island Wildlife Sanctuary
India Jarawa Reserve (Middle Andaman and South Andaman)
India Kadakachang (Katakatchang)
India Landfall Island Wildlife Sanctuary
India Little Andaman
India Mahatma Gandhi Marine National Park (Wandoor National Park)
India Mount Diavalo and Cuthbert Bay
India Mount Harriet National Park
India North and South Sentinel
India North Reef Island Wildlife Sanctuary
India Rani Jhansi Marine National Park
India Saddle Peak National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land marginal resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 700 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Spilornis elgini. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019.