Justification of Red List Category
This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (extent of occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.
The global population is estimated to number > c.1,000,000 individuals (Ferguson-Lees et al. 2001), while national population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and < c.50 individuals on migration in Korea; < c.50 individuals on migration in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009). A national census in South Africa recorded 111,291 individuals in 2009 (Symes and Woodborne 2010), this suggests that a large proportion of the population overwinters further north or that the global population size is considerably smaller than the maximum estimate of 1,000,000 individuals (Global Raptor Information Network 2015).
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.
The species is vulnerable to degradation of grassland habitats by agriculture and afforestation in its African range (Global Raptor Information Network 2015). Open cast mining in South Africa threatens the species's grassland habitats and persecution on migration is a further threat (Symes and Woodborne 2010). In Nagaland, India, the species was heavily persecuted during autumn migration however following an international response and effective conservation action, no birds were captured during the 2013 autumn migration (Lawrence 2013). Grazing in the Mongolian drylands is thought to reduce recruitment of Siberian elm Ulmus pumila, the stands of which are used as breeding and sheltering sites by the species (Wesche et al. 2011).
Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M. & Ashpole, J
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Falco amurensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2019.