American Flamingo Phoenicopterus ruber


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Knox, A.G., Collinson, M., Helbig, A.J., Parkin, D.T. and Sangster,G. 2002. Taxonomic recommendations for British birds. Ibis 144: 707-710.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 5,090,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 5,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 260000-330000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Trend justification: The overall trend is increasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2006).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Anguilla (to UK) V Extant Yes
Antigua and Barbuda V Extinct
Aruba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Barbados V Extant
Belize V Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Canada V Extant
Cayman Islands (to UK) V Extant
Colombia N Extant
Cuba N Extant Yes
Dominican Republic N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
French Guiana N Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) V Extant
Guyana N Extant
Haiti N Extant Yes
Honduras V Extant
Jamaica N Extant
Mexico N Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis V Extant
St Lucia V Extant
Suriname N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant
Venezuela N Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to UK) R Extant Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Malpais-St Michiel
Colombia Complejo de Humedales Costeros de la Guajira
Venezuela Parque Nacional Archipiélago Los Roques
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre y Reserva de Pesca Laguna de Boca de Caño
Venezuela Humedales Boca de Hueque y Sauca
Venezuela Humedales Boca del Río Unare
Venezuela Humedal Chacopata
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre y Reserva de Pesca Ciénaga de Los Olivitos
Venezuela Parque Nacional Laguna de Tacarigua
Jamaica Yallahs
Venezuela Pedernales-Capure
Venezuela Reserva de Fauna Silvestre Tucurere
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Fish Ponds and Crossing Place Trail, Middle Caicos
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) North, Middle and East Caicos Ramsar Site
Cuba Cayo Sabinal, Ballenatos y Manglares de la Bahía de Nuevitas
Cuba Delta del Cauto
Cuba Río Máximo
Bahamas Great Inagua
Bahamas Mira Por Vos
Bahamas Booby Rocks and Pirates Bay
Dominican Republic Enriquillo Lake National Park
Dominican Republic Jaragua National Park
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Lac Bay, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Pelkermeer Saltworks, Bonaire
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Washington-Slagbaai National Park, Bonaire
Cuba Las Picuas - Del Cristo Cay
Cuba Gran Humedal del Norte de Ciego de Ávila
Cuba Ciénaga de Zapata
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Muizenberg, Curaçao
Venezuela Refugio de Fauna Silvestre Cuare
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Jan Thiel Lagoon, Curaçao
Bahamas Booby Cay
Haiti Lac Azuéi
Haiti Lagon-aux-Boeufs
Cuba Cayería Centro - Oriental de Villa Clara
Cuba Humedal Sur de Sancti Spiritus
Cuba Delta del Mayarí
Mexico Humedales Costeros del Norte de la Península de Yucatán
Mexico Reserva Estatal de Dzilám
Mexico Ría Celestún
Guyana North-west Coastline
Puerto Rico (to USA) Culebra
Virgin Islands (to UK) Anegada: Western salt ponds and coastal areas
Bahamas Joulter Cays

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Phoenicopterus ruber. Downloaded from on 25/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2021.